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XPath satisfiability in the presence of DTDs
 In PODS ’05: Proceedings of the twentyfourth ACM Symposium on Principles of Database Systems
, 2005
"... We study the satisfiability problem associated with XPath in the presence of DTDs. This is the problem of determining, given a query p in an XPath fragment and a DTD D, whether or not there exists an XML document T such that T conforms to D and the answer of p on T is nonempty. We consider a variety ..."
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Cited by 148 (8 self)
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We study the satisfiability problem associated with XPath in the presence of DTDs. This is the problem of determining, given a query p in an XPath fragment and a DTD D, whether or not there exists an XML document T such that T conforms to D and the answer of p on T is nonempty. We consider a variety of XPath fragments widely used in practice, and investigate the impact of different XPath operators on satisfiability analysis. We first study the problem for negationfree XPath fragments with and without upward axes, recursion and datavalue joins, identifying which factors lead to tractability and which to NPcompleteness. We then turn to fragments with negation but without data values, establishing lower and upper bounds in the absence and in the presence of upward modalities and recursion. We show that with negation the complexity ranges from PSPACE to EXPTIME. Moreover, when both data values and negation are in place, we find that the complexity ranges from NEXPTIME to undecidable. Finally, we give a finer analysis of the problem for particular classes of DTDs, exploring the impact of various DTD constructs, identifying tractable cases, as well as providing the complexity in the query size alone. 1.
Efficient Static Analysis of XML Paths and Types
, 2008
"... We present an algorithm to solve XPath decision problems under regular tree type constraints and show its use to statically typecheck XPath queries. To this end, we prove the decidability of a logic with converse for finite ordered trees whose time complexity is a simple exponential of the size of ..."
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Cited by 95 (49 self)
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We present an algorithm to solve XPath decision problems under regular tree type constraints and show its use to statically typecheck XPath queries. To this end, we prove the decidability of a logic with converse for finite ordered trees whose time complexity is a simple exponential of the size of a formula. The logic corresponds to the alternation free modal µcalculus without greatest fixpoint, restricted to finite trees, and where formulas are cyclefree. Our proof method is based on two auxiliary results. First, XML regular tree types and XPath expressions have a linear translation to cyclefree formulas. Second, the least and greatest fixpoints are equivalent for finite trees, hence the logic is closed under negation. Building on these results, we describe a practical, effective system for solving the satisfiability of a formula. The system has been experimented with some decision problems such as XPath emptiness, containment, overlap, and coverage, with or without type constraints. The benefit of the approach is that our system can be effectively used in static analyzers for programming languages
Conditional XPath
 ACM Trans. Database Syst
, 2005
"... Abstract. XPath 1.0 is a variable free language designed to specify paths between nodes in XML documents. Such paths can alternatively be specified in firstorder logic. The logical abstraction of XPath 1.0, usually called Navigational or Core XPath, is not powerful enough to express every firstord ..."
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Cited by 62 (5 self)
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Abstract. XPath 1.0 is a variable free language designed to specify paths between nodes in XML documents. Such paths can alternatively be specified in firstorder logic. The logical abstraction of XPath 1.0, usually called Navigational or Core XPath, is not powerful enough to express every firstorder definable path. In this paper we show that there exists a natural expansion of Core XPath in which every firstorder definable path in XML document trees is expressible. This expansion is called Conditional XPath. It contains additional axis relations of the form (child::n[F])+, denoting the transitive closure of the path expressed by child::n[F]. The difference with XPath’s descendant::n[F] is that the path (child::n[F])+ is conditional on the fact that all nodes in between should be labeled by n and should make the predicate F true. This result can be viewed as the XPath analogue of the expressive completeness of the relational algebra with respect to firstorder logic. 1
Conditional XPath, the first order complete XPath dialect
, 2004
"... XPath is the W3Cstandard node addressing language for XML documents. XPath is still under development and its technical aspects are intensively studied. What is missing at present is a clear characterization of the expressive power of XPath, be it either semantical or with reference to some well e ..."
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Cited by 56 (5 self)
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XPath is the W3Cstandard node addressing language for XML documents. XPath is still under development and its technical aspects are intensively studied. What is missing at present is a clear characterization of the expressive power of XPath, be it either semantical or with reference to some well established existing (logical) formalism. Core XPath (the logical core of XPath 1.0 defined by Gottlob et al.) cannot express queries with conditional paths as exemplified by "do a child step, while test is true at the resulting node." In a firstorder complete extension of Core XPath, such queries are expressible. We add conditional axis relations to Core XPath and show that the resulting language, called conditional XPath, is equally expressive as firstorder logic when interpreted on ordered trees. Both the result, the extended XPath language, and the proof are closely related to temporal logic. Specifically, while Core XPath may be viewed as a simple temporal logic, conditional XPath extends this with (counterparts of) the since and until operators.
Xpath leashed
 IN ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2007
"... This survey gives an overview of formal results on the XML query language XPath. We identify several important fragments of XPath, focusing on subsets of XPath 1.0. We then give results on the expressiveness of XPath and its fragments compared to other formalisms for querying trees, algorithms and c ..."
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Cited by 52 (3 self)
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This survey gives an overview of formal results on the XML query language XPath. We identify several important fragments of XPath, focusing on subsets of XPath 1.0. We then give results on the expressiveness of XPath and its fragments compared to other formalisms for querying trees, algorithms and complexity bounds for evaluation of XPath queries, and static analysis of XPath queries.
Specifying Access Control Policies for XML Documents with XPath
, 2004
"... Access control for XML documents is a nontrivial topic, as can be witnessed from the number of approaches presented in the literature. Trying to compare these, we discovered the need for a simple, clear and unambiguous language to state the declarative semantics of an access control policy. All cur ..."
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Cited by 49 (5 self)
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Access control for XML documents is a nontrivial topic, as can be witnessed from the number of approaches presented in the literature. Trying to compare these, we discovered the need for a simple, clear and unambiguous language to state the declarative semantics of an access control policy. All current approaches state the semantics in natural language, which has none of the above properties. This makes it hard to assess whether the proposed algorithms are correct (i.e., really implement the described semantics). It is also hard to assess the proposed policy on its merits, and to compare it to others (for file systems for instance).
Rewriting Regular XPath Queries on XML Views
 In Proc. ICDE
, 2007
"... We study the problem of answering queries posed on virtual views of XML documents, a problem commonly encountered when enforcing XML access control and integrating data. We approach the problem by rewriting queries on views into equivalent queries on the underlying document, and thus avoid the overh ..."
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Cited by 41 (3 self)
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We study the problem of answering queries posed on virtual views of XML documents, a problem commonly encountered when enforcing XML access control and integrating data. We approach the problem by rewriting queries on views into equivalent queries on the underlying document, and thus avoid the overhead of view materialization and maintenance. We consider possibly recursively defined XML views and study the rewriting of both XPath and regular XPath queries. We show that while rewriting is not always possible for XPath over recursive views, it is for regular XPath; however, the rewritten query may be of exponential size. To avoid this prohibitive cost we propose a rewriting algorithm that characterizes rewritten queries as a new form of automata, and an efficient algorithm to evaluate the automatonrepresented queries. These allow us to answer queries on views in linear time. We have fully implemented a prototype system, SMOQE, which yields the first regular XPath engine and a practical solution for answering queries over possibly recursively defined XML views. 1.
On the complexity of XPath containment in the presence of disjunction, DTDs, and variables
 Logical Methods in Computer Science
"... Vol. 2 (3:1) 2006, pp. 1–1–30 www.lmcsonline.org ..."
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Cited by 39 (10 self)
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Vol. 2 (3:1) 2006, pp. 1–1–30 www.lmcsonline.org
First order paths in ordered trees
 In ICDT’05
, 2005
"... Abstract. We give two sufficient conditions on XPath like languages for having first order expressivity, meaning that every first order definable set of paths in an ordered nodelabeled tree is definable in that XPath language. They are phrased in terms of expansions of navigational (sometimes calle ..."
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Cited by 37 (5 self)
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Abstract. We give two sufficient conditions on XPath like languages for having first order expressivity, meaning that every first order definable set of paths in an ordered nodelabeled tree is definable in that XPath language. They are phrased in terms of expansions of navigational (sometimes called “Core”) XPath. Adding either complementation, or the more elegant conditional paths is sufficient. A conditional path is an axis relation of the form (one step axis::n[F]) +, denoting the transitive closure of the relation expressed by one step axis::n[F]. As neither is expressible in navigational XPath we also give characterizations in terms of first order logic of the answer sets and the sets of paths navigational XPath can define. The first in terms of a suitable two variable fragment, the second in terms of unions of conjunctive queries. 1