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31
How to Make AdHoc Polymorphism Less Ad Hoc
, 1988
"... This paper presents type classes, a new approach to adhoc polymorphism. Type classes permit overloading of arithmetic operators such as multiplication, and generalise the "eqtype variables" of Standard ML. Type classes extend the Hindley/Milner polymorphic type system, and provide a new approach to ..."
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Cited by 345 (3 self)
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This paper presents type classes, a new approach to adhoc polymorphism. Type classes permit overloading of arithmetic operators such as multiplication, and generalise the "eqtype variables" of Standard ML. Type classes extend the Hindley/Milner polymorphic type system, and provide a new approach to issues that arise in objectoriented programming, bounded type quantification, and abstract data types. This paper provides an informal introduction to type classes, and defines them formally by means of type inference rules. 1 Introduction Strachey chose the adjectives adhoc and parametric to distinguish two varieties of polymorphism [Str67]. Adhoc polymorphism occurs when a function is defined over several different types, acting in a different way for each type. A typical example is overloaded multiplication: the same symbol may be used to denote multiplication of integers (as in 3*3) and multiplication of floating point values (as in 3.14*3.14). Parametric polymorphism occurs wh...
Theorems for free!
 FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE
, 1989
"... From the type of a polymorphic function we can derive a theorem that it satisfies. Every function of the same type satisfies the same theorem. This provides a free source of useful theorems, courtesy of Reynolds' abstraction theorem for the polymorphic lambda calculus. ..."
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Cited by 329 (6 self)
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From the type of a polymorphic function we can derive a theorem that it satisfies. Every function of the same type satisfies the same theorem. This provides a free source of useful theorems, courtesy of Reynolds' abstraction theorem for the polymorphic lambda calculus.
A Standard ML Compiler
 Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture
, 1987
"... Standard ML is a major revision of earlier dialects of the functional language ML. We describe the first compiler written for Standard ML in Standard ML. The compiler incorporates a number of novel features and techniques, and is probably the largest system written to date in Standard ML. Great atte ..."
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Cited by 93 (14 self)
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Standard ML is a major revision of earlier dialects of the functional language ML. We describe the first compiler written for Standard ML in Standard ML. The compiler incorporates a number of novel features and techniques, and is probably the largest system written to date in Standard ML. Great attention was paid to modularity in the construction of the compiler, leading to a successful largescale test of the modular capabilities of Standard ML. The front end is useful for purposes other than compilation, and the back end is easily retargetable (we have code generators for the VAX and MC68020). The module facilities of Standard ML were taken into account early in the design of the compiler, and they particularly influenced the environment management component of the front end. For example, the symbol table structure is designed for fast access to opened structures. The front end of the compiler is a single phase that integrates parsing, environment management, and type checking. The m...
A direct algorithm for type inference in the rank2 fragment of the secondorder λcalculus
, 1993
"... We study the problem of type inference for a family of polymorphic type disciplines containing the power of CoreML. This family comprises all levels of the stratification of the secondorder lambdacalculus by "rank" of types. We show that typability is an undecidable problem at every rank k >= 3 o ..."
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Cited by 78 (14 self)
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We study the problem of type inference for a family of polymorphic type disciplines containing the power of CoreML. This family comprises all levels of the stratification of the secondorder lambdacalculus by "rank" of types. We show that typability is an undecidable problem at every rank k >= 3 of this stratification. While it was already known that typability is decidable at rank 2, no direct and easytoimplement algorithm was available. To design such an algorithm, we develop a new notion of reduction and show howto use it to reduce the problem of typability at rank 2 to the problem of acyclic semiunification. A byproduct of our analysis is the publication of a simple solution procedure for acyclic semiunification.
A Categorical Programming Language
, 1987
"... A theory of data types and a programming language based on category theory are presented. Data types play a crucial role in programming. They enable us to write programs easily and elegantly. Various programming languages have been developed, each of which may use different kinds of data types. Ther ..."
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Cited by 67 (0 self)
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A theory of data types and a programming language based on category theory are presented. Data types play a crucial role in programming. They enable us to write programs easily and elegantly. Various programming languages have been developed, each of which may use different kinds of data types. Therefore, it becomes important to organize data types systematically so that we can understand the relationship between one data type and another and investigate future directions which lead us to discover exciting new data types. There have been several approaches to systematically organize data types: algebraic specification methods using algebras, domain theory using complete partially ordered sets and type theory using the connection between logics and data types. Here, we use category theory. Category theory has proved to be remarkably good at revealing the nature of mathematical objects, and we use it to understand the true nature of data types in programming.
A Runtime System
, 1990
"... The runtime data structures of the Standard ML of New Jersey compiler are simple yet general. As a result, code generators are easy to implement, programs execute quickly, garbage collectors are easy to implement and work efficiently, and a variety of runtime facilities can be provided with ease. ..."
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Cited by 64 (3 self)
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The runtime data structures of the Standard ML of New Jersey compiler are simple yet general. As a result, code generators are easy to implement, programs execute quickly, garbage collectors are easy to implement and work efficiently, and a variety of runtime facilities can be provided with ease.
ML With Extended Pattern Matching And Subtypes
, 1989
"... We extend a fragment of the programming language ML by incorporating a more general form of record pattern matching and providing for userdeclared subtypes. Together, these two enhancements may be used to support a restricted objectoriented programming style. In keeping with the framework of ML, w ..."
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Cited by 47 (2 self)
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We extend a fragment of the programming language ML by incorporating a more general form of record pattern matching and providing for userdeclared subtypes. Together, these two enhancements may be used to support a restricted objectoriented programming style. In keeping with the framework of ML, we present typing rules for the language, and develop a type inference aJgorithm. We prove that the algorithm is sound with respect to the typing rules, and that it infers a most general typing for every typable expression.
Notes on Typed ObjectOriented Programming
 In Proceedings of Theoretical Aspects of Computer Software
, 1994
"... . This paper, which is partly tutorial in nature, summarizes some basic research goals in the study and development of typed objectoriented programming languages. These include both immediate repairs to problems with existing languages and the longterm development of more flexible and expressive, y ..."
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Cited by 32 (2 self)
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. This paper, which is partly tutorial in nature, summarizes some basic research goals in the study and development of typed objectoriented programming languages. These include both immediate repairs to problems with existing languages and the longterm development of more flexible and expressive, yet typesafe, approaches to program organization and design. We summarize and compare three object models used in the theoretical literature. We also consider approaches to a few technical problems, including changes in the type of a method (member function) from super (base) class to sub (derived) class and the use of types that give information about the implementations as well as the interfaces of objects. Such implementation types seem essential for adequate typing of binary operations on objects, for example. 1 Introduction A number of largely "theoretical" research efforts over the last five to ten years have developed and analyzed type systems for model objectoriented languages. Thi...