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168
First principles organize attention to and learning about relevant data: Number and animateinanimate distinction as examples
 Cognitive Science
, 1990
"... Early cognitive development benefits from nonilnguistic representations of skeietai sets of domainspecific principles and complementary domainrelevant doto obstroction processes. The principles outline the domain, identify relevant inputs, and structure coherently what is learned. Knowledge acquis ..."
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Cited by 68 (2 self)
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Early cognitive development benefits from nonilnguistic representations of skeietai sets of domainspecific principles and complementary domainrelevant doto obstroction processes. The principles outline the domain, identify relevant inputs, and structure coherently what is learned. Knowledge acquisition within the domoin is a faint function of such domainspecific principles and domaingeneral learning mechanisms. Two examples of early learning illustrate this. Skeietol preverboi counting principles help children sort different linguistic strings into those that function OS the conventional countword OS opposed to labels for obfects in the child’s linguistic community. Skeletal causal principles, working with complementary perceptual processes that abstract information obout biological and nonbiological conditions and patterns of movement, leod to the rapid ocquisition of knowledge about the animateinanimate dlstinction. By 3 years of age children con say whether photographs of unfamiliar nonmammoiion animals, mommois, statues, and wheeled obfectr portray objects capable or incopabie of selfgenerated motion. They also generate answers to questions about the insides
Scalar Implicatures: Experiments at the SemanticsPragmatics Interface
"... In this article we present two sets of experiments designed to investigate the acquisition of scalar implicatures. Scalar implicatures arise in examples like Some profissors are famous where the speaker's use of some typically indicates that s/he had reasons not to use a more informative term, ..."
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Cited by 48 (8 self)
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In this article we present two sets of experiments designed to investigate the acquisition of scalar implicatures. Scalar implicatures arise in examples like Some profissors are famous where the speaker's use of some typically indicates that s/he had reasons not to use a more informative term, e.g. all. Someprofissors are famous therefore gives rise to the implicature that not all professors are famous. Recent studies on the development of pragmatics suggest that preschool children are often insensitive to such implicatures when they interpret scalar terms (Noveck 2001 for terms like might and some; Chierchia, Crain, Guasti, Gualmini and Meroni 2001 for or). This conclusion raises two important questions: a) are all scalar terms treated in the same way by young children?, and b) does the child's difficulty reflect a genuine inability to derive scalar implicatures or is it due to demands imposed by the experimental task on an otherwise pragmatically savvy child? Experiment 1 addresses the first question by testing a group of 30 5yearolds and 30 adults (all native speakers of Greek) on three different scales, meriki/ oli (some/all), dio/ tris (two/three) and arxi<o / teliono (start/finish). In each case, subjects were presented with contexts which satisfy the truth conditions of the stronger (i.e. more informative) terms on each scale (i.e. all, three and finish) but were described using the weaker terms of the scales (i.e. some, two, start). We found that while adults overwhelmingly rejected these infelicitous descriptions, children almost never did so. Children also differed from adults in that thei rejection rate on the numerical scale was reliably higher than on the two other scales. In order to address question (b), we trained a group of 30 5yearolds to detect in...
Numerical and arithmetical cognition: A longitudinal study of process and concept deficits in children with learning disability
 Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
, 2000
"... Based on the stability and level of performance on standard achievement tests in first and second grade (mean age in first grade � 82 months), children with IQ scores in the lowaverage to highaverage range were classified as learning disabled (LD) in mathematics (MD), reading (RD), or both (MD/RD) ..."
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Cited by 33 (11 self)
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Based on the stability and level of performance on standard achievement tests in first and second grade (mean age in first grade � 82 months), children with IQ scores in the lowaverage to highaverage range were classified as learning disabled (LD) in mathematics (MD), reading (RD), or both (MD/RD). These children (n � 42), a group of children who showed variable achievement test performance across grades (n � 16), and a control group of academically normal peers (n � 35) were administered a series of experimental and psychometric tasks. The tasks assessed number comprehension and production skills, counting knowledge, arithmetic skills, working memory, the ease of activation of phonetic representations of words and numbers, and spatial abilities. The children with variable achievement test performance did not differ from the academically normal children in any cognitive domain, whereas the children in the LD groups showed specific patterns of cognitive deficit, above and beyond the influence of IQ. Discussion focuses on the similarities and differences across the groups of LD children. © 2000 Academic Press Key Words: learning disabilities; mathematical disabilities; reading disabilities; number;
Numerical and arithmetical cognition: Patterns of functions and deficits in children at risk for a mathematical disability
 Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
, 1999
"... Based on performance on standard achievement tests, firstgrade children (mean age � 82 months) with IQ scores in the lowaverage to highaverage range were classified as at risk for a learning disability (LD) in mathematics, reading, or both. These atrisk children (n � 55) and a control group of a ..."
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Cited by 26 (9 self)
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Based on performance on standard achievement tests, firstgrade children (mean age � 82 months) with IQ scores in the lowaverage to highaverage range were classified as at risk for a learning disability (LD) in mathematics, reading, or both. These atrisk children (n � 55) and a control group of academically normal peers (n � 35) were administered experimental tasks that assessed number comprehension and production skills, counting knowledge, arithmetic skills, working memory, and ease of retrieving information from longterm memory. Different patterns of intact cognitive functions and deficits were found for children in the different atrisk groups. As a set, performance on the experimental tasks accounted for roughly 50 % and 10 % of the group differences in mathematics and reading achievement, respectively, above and beyond the influence of IQ. Performance on the experimental tasks thus provides insights into the cognitive deficits underlying different forms of LD, as well as into the sources of individual differences in academic achievement. © 1999 Academic Press Key Words: learning disabilities; mathematical disabilities; number; counting; arithmetic. Quantitative skills influence employability, wages, and onthejob productivity above and beyond the influence of reading abilities, IQ, and a host of other factors (Paglin & Rufolo, 1990; RiveraBatiz, 1992). Despite the economic importance of quantitative abilities, little research has been conducted on the factors that contribute to poor mathematical achievement and to mathematical disabilities (MD), in comparison to the research efforts devoted to understanding poor reading achievement and reading
DC: Mathematics and learning disabilities
 J Learn Disabil
"... Between 5 % and 8 % of schoolage children have some form of memory or cognitive deficit that interferes with their ability to learn concepts or procedures in one or more mathematical domains. A review of the arithmetical competencies of these children is provided, along with discussion of underlyin ..."
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Cited by 25 (4 self)
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Between 5 % and 8 % of schoolage children have some form of memory or cognitive deficit that interferes with their ability to learn concepts or procedures in one or more mathematical domains. A review of the arithmetical competencies of these children is provided, along with discussion of underlying memory and cognitive deficits and potential neural correlates. The deficits are discussed in terms of three subtypes of mathematics learning disability and in terms of a more general framework for linking research in mathematical cognition to research in learning disabilities. The breadth and complexity of the field of mathematics make the identification and study of the cognitive phenotypes that define mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) a formidable endeavor. In theory, a learning disability can result from deficits in the ability to represent or process information in one or all of the
Cognitive Foundations of Arithmetic: Evolution and Ontogenisis
 Mind and Language
, 2001
"... Dehaene (this volume) articulates a naturalistic approach to the cognitive foundations of mathematics. Further, he argues that the `number line' (analog magnitude) system of representation is the evolutionary and ontogenetic foundation of numerical concepts. Here I endorse Dehaene's nat ..."
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Cited by 25 (1 self)
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Dehaene (this volume) articulates a naturalistic approach to the cognitive foundations of mathematics. Further, he argues that the `number line' (analog magnitude) system of representation is the evolutionary and ontogenetic foundation of numerical concepts. Here I endorse Dehaene's naturalistic stance and also his characterization of analog magnitude number representations. Although analog magnitude representations are part of the evolutionary foundations of numerical concepts, I argue that they are unlikely to be part of the ontogenetic foundations of the capacity to represent natural number. Rather, the developmental source of explicit integer list representations of number are more likely to be systems such as the objectfile representations that articulate midlevel object based attention, systems that build parallel representations of small sets of individuals.
The Neural Basis of PredicateArgument Structure
 Behavioral and Brain Sciences
, 2003
"... This article presents a step in the establishment of the following hypothesis: ..."
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Cited by 21 (2 self)
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This article presents a step in the establishment of the following hypothesis:
Developmental change in the acuity of the ‘number sense’: the approximate number system
 in 3, 4, 5, 6yearolds and adults. Developmental Psychology
, 2008
"... Behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain imaging research points to a dedicated system for processing number that is shared across development and across species. This foundational Approximate Number System (ANS) operates over multiple modalities, forming representations of the number of objects, s ..."
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Cited by 19 (3 self)
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Behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain imaging research points to a dedicated system for processing number that is shared across development and across species. This foundational Approximate Number System (ANS) operates over multiple modalities, forming representations of the number of objects, sounds, or events in a scene. This system is imprecise and hence differs from exact counting. Evidence suggests that the resolution of the ANS, as specified by a Weber fraction, increases with age such that adults can discriminate numerosities that infants cannot. However, the Weber fraction has yet to be determined for participants of any age between 9 months and adulthood, leaving its developmental trajectory unclear. Here we identify the Weber fraction of the ANS in 3, 4, 5, and 6yearold children and in adults. We show that the resolution of this system continues to increase throughout childhood, with adultlike levels of acuity attained surprisingly late in development.