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21
A Framework for Dynamic Graph Drawing
 CONGRESSUS NUMERANTIUM
, 1992
"... Drawing graphs is an important problem that combines flavors of computational geometry and graph theory. Applications can be found in a variety of areas including circuit layout, network management, software engineering, and graphics. The main contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows ..."
Abstract

Cited by 515 (40 self)
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Drawing graphs is an important problem that combines flavors of computational geometry and graph theory. Applications can be found in a variety of areas including circuit layout, network management, software engineering, and graphics. The main contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows: ffl We devise a model for dynamic graph algorithms, based on performing queries and updates on an implicit representation of the drawing, and we show its applications. ffl We present several efficient dynamic drawing algorithms for trees, seriesparallel digraphs, planar stdigraphs, and planar graphs. These algorithms adopt a variety of representations (e.g., straightline, polyline, visibility), and update the drawing in a smooth way.
Dynamic Trees and Dynamic Point Location
 In Proc. 23rd Annu. ACM Sympos. Theory Comput
, 1991
"... This paper describes new methods for maintaining a pointlocation data structure for a dynamicallychanging monotone subdivision S. The main approach is based on the maintenance of two interlaced spanning trees, one for S and one for the graphtheoretic planar dual of S. Queries are answered by using ..."
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Cited by 43 (9 self)
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This paper describes new methods for maintaining a pointlocation data structure for a dynamicallychanging monotone subdivision S. The main approach is based on the maintenance of two interlaced spanning trees, one for S and one for the graphtheoretic planar dual of S. Queries are answered by using a centroid decomposition of the dual tree to drive searches in the primal tree. These trees are maintained via the linkcut trees structure of Sleator and Tarjan, leading to a scheme that achieves vertex insertion/deletion in O(log n) time, insertion/deletion of kedge monotone chains in O(log n + k) time, and answers queries in O(log 2 n) time, with O(n) space, where n is the current size of subdivision S. The techniques described also allow for the dual operations expand and contract to be implemented in O(log n) time, leading to an improved method for spatial pointlocation in a 3dimensional convex subdivision. In addition, the interlacedtree approach is applied to online pointlo...
Visibility with a moving point of view
 Algorithmica
, 1994
"... We investigate 3d visibility problems in which the viewing position moves along a straight flightpath. Specifically we focus on two problems: determining the points along the flightpath at which the topology of the viewed scene changes, and answering rayshooting queries for rays with origin on the ..."
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Cited by 28 (1 self)
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We investigate 3d visibility problems in which the viewing position moves along a straight flightpath. Specifically we focus on two problems: determining the points along the flightpath at which the topology of the viewed scene changes, and answering rayshooting queries for rays with origin on the flightpath. Three progressively more specialized problems are considered: general scenes, terrains, and terrains with vertical flightpaths. 1.
Parallel transitive closure and point location in planar structures
 SIAM J. COMPUT
, 1991
"... Parallel algorithms for several graph and geometric problems are presented, including transitive closure and topological sorting in planar stgraphs, preprocessing planar subdivisions for point location queries, and construction of visibility representations and drawings of planar graphs. Most of th ..."
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Cited by 23 (11 self)
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Parallel algorithms for several graph and geometric problems are presented, including transitive closure and topological sorting in planar stgraphs, preprocessing planar subdivisions for point location queries, and construction of visibility representations and drawings of planar graphs. Most of these algorithms achieve optimal O(log n) running time using n = log n processors in the EREW PRAM model, n being the number of vertices.
A Unified Approach to Dynamic Point Location, Ray Shooting, and Shortest Paths in Planar Maps
, 1992
"... We describe a new technique for dynamically maintaining the trapezoidal decomposition of a connected planar map M with 7 ~ vertices, and apply it to the development of a unified dynamic data structure that supports pointlocation, rayshooting, and shortestpath queries in M. The space requirement i ..."
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Cited by 21 (6 self)
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We describe a new technique for dynamically maintaining the trapezoidal decomposition of a connected planar map M with 7 ~ vertices, and apply it to the development of a unified dynamic data structure that supports pointlocation, rayshooting, and shortestpath queries in M. The space requirement is O(nlog n). Pointlocation queries take time O(log 7~). Rayshooting and shortestpath queries take time O(log3 TZ) (plus O(k) time if the k edges of the shortest path are reported in addition to its length). Updates consist of insertions and deletions of vertices and edges, and take O(log3 n) time (amortized for vertex updates).
Methods for Achieving Fast Query Times in Point Location Data Structures
, 1997
"... Given a collection S of n line segments in the plane, the planar point location problem is to construct a data structure that can efficiently determine for a given query point p the first segment(s) in S intersected by vertical rays emanating out from p. It is well known that linearspace data struc ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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Given a collection S of n line segments in the plane, the planar point location problem is to construct a data structure that can efficiently determine for a given query point p the first segment(s) in S intersected by vertical rays emanating out from p. It is well known that linearspace data structures can be constructed so as to achieve O(log n) query times. But applications, such as those common in geographic information systems, motivate a reexamination of this problem with the goal of improving query times further while also simplifying the methods needed to achieve such query times. In this paper we perform such a reexamination, focusing on the issues that arise in three different classes of pointlocation query sequences: ffl sequences that are reasonably uniform spatially and temporally (in which case the constant factors in the query times become critical), ffl sequences that are nonuniform spatially or temporally (in which case one desires data structures that adapt to s...
I/OEfficient Dynamic Point Location in Monotone Planar Subdivisions (Extended Abstract)
"... We present an efficient externalmemory dynamic data structure for point location in monotone planar subdivisions. Our data structure uses O(N=B) disk blocks to store a monotone subdivision of size N, where B is the size of a disk block. It supports queries in O(log2B N) I/Os (worstcase) and upda ..."
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Cited by 19 (15 self)
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We present an efficient externalmemory dynamic data structure for point location in monotone planar subdivisions. Our data structure uses O(N=B) disk blocks to store a monotone subdivision of size N, where B is the size of a disk block. It supports queries in O(log2B N) I/Os (worstcase) and updates in O(log2B N) I/Os (amortized). We also
No Quadrangulation is Extremely Odd
, 1995
"... Given a set S of n points in the plane, a quadrangulation of S is a planar subdivision whose vertices are the points of S, whose outer face is the convex hull of S, and every face of the subdivision (except possibly the outer face) is a quadrilateral. We show that S admits a quadrangulation if a ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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Given a set S of n points in the plane, a quadrangulation of S is a planar subdivision whose vertices are the points of S, whose outer face is the convex hull of S, and every face of the subdivision (except possibly the outer face) is a quadrilateral. We show that S admits a quadrangulation if and only if S does not have an odd number of extreme points. If S admits a quadrangulation, we present an algorithm that computes a quadrangulation of S in O(n log n) time even in the presence of collinear points. If S does not admit a quadrangulation, then our algorithm can quadrangulate S with the addition of one extra point, which is optimal. We also provide an\Omega (n log n) time lower bound for the problem. Finally, our results imply that a kangulation of a set of points can be achieved with the addition of at most k \Gamma 3 extra points within the same time bound.
Dynamization of the Trapezoid Method for Planar Point Location
, 1991
"... We present a fully dynamic data structure for point location in a monotone subdivision, based on the trapezoid method. The operations supported are insertion and deletion of vertices and edges, and horizontal translation of vertices. Let n be the current number of vertices of the subdivision. Point ..."
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Cited by 14 (4 self)
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We present a fully dynamic data structure for point location in a monotone subdivision, based on the trapezoid method. The operations supported are insertion and deletion of vertices and edges, and horizontal translation of vertices. Let n be the current number of vertices of the subdivision. Point location queries take O(log n) time, while updates take O(log2 n) time. The space requirement is O(n log n). This is the first fully dynamic point location data structure for monotone subdivisions that achieves optimal query time.
Average case analysis of dynamic geometric optimization
, 1995
"... We maintain the maximum spanning tree of a planar point set, as points are inserted or deleted, in O(log³ n) expected time per update in Mulmuley’s averagecase model of dynamic geometric computation. We use as subroutines dynamic algorithms for two other geometric graphs: the farthest neighbor fore ..."
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Cited by 13 (3 self)
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We maintain the maximum spanning tree of a planar point set, as points are inserted or deleted, in O(log³ n) expected time per update in Mulmuley’s averagecase model of dynamic geometric computation. We use as subroutines dynamic algorithms for two other geometric graphs: the farthest neighbor forest and the rotating caliper graph related to an algorithm for static computation of point set widths and diameters. We maintain the former graph in expected time O(log² n) per update and the latter in expected time O(log n) per update. We also use the rotating caliper graph to maintain the diameter, width, and minimum enclosing rectangle of a point set in expected time O(log n) per update. A subproblem uses a technique for averagecase orthogonal range search that may also be of interest.