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Fully Dynamic Spatial Approximation Trees
 In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on String Processing and Information Retrieval (SPIRE 2002), LNCS 2476
, 2002
"... The Spatial Approximation Tree (satree) is a recently proposed data structure for searching in metric spaces. It has been shown that it compares favorably against alternative data structures in spaces of high dimension or queries with low selectivity. Its main drawbacks are: costly construction ..."
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Cited by 28 (14 self)
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The Spatial Approximation Tree (satree) is a recently proposed data structure for searching in metric spaces. It has been shown that it compares favorably against alternative data structures in spaces of high dimension or queries with low selectivity. Its main drawbacks are: costly construction time, poor performance in low dimensional spaces or queries with high selectivity, and the fact of being a static data structure, that is, once built, one cannot add or delete elements.
BTrees with Inserts and Deletes: Why FreeatEmpty Is Better Than MergeatHalf
 J. Comput. System Sci
, 1993
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The Performance of Concurrent Data Structure Algorithms
 Transactions on Database Systems
, 1994
"... This thesis develops a validated model of concurrent data structure algorithm performance, concentrating on concurrent Btrees. The thesis first develops two analytical tools, which are explained in the next two paragraphs, for the analysis. Yao showed that the space utilization of a Btree built fr ..."
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Cited by 13 (9 self)
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This thesis develops a validated model of concurrent data structure algorithm performance, concentrating on concurrent Btrees. The thesis first develops two analytical tools, which are explained in the next two paragraphs, for the analysis. Yao showed that the space utilization of a Btree built from random inserts is 69%. Assuming that nodes merge only when empty, we show that the utilization is 39% when the number of insert and delete operations is the same. However, if there are just 5% more inserts than deletes, then the utilization is at least 62%. In addition to the utilization, we calculate the probabilities of splitting and merging, important parameters for calculating concurrent Btree algorithm performance. We compare mergeatempty Btrees with mergeathalf Btrees. We conclude that mergeatempty Btrees have a slightly lower space utilization but a much lower restructuring rate than mergeathalf Btrees, making mergeatempty Btrees preferable for concurrent Btree algo...
A Multivariate View of Random Bucket Digital Search Trees
, 2002
"... We take a multivariate view of digital search trees by studying the number of nodes of di#erent types that may coexist in a bucket digital search tree as it grows under an arbitrary memory management system. We obtain the mean of each type of node, as well as the entire covariance matrix between ..."
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Cited by 13 (7 self)
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We take a multivariate view of digital search trees by studying the number of nodes of di#erent types that may coexist in a bucket digital search tree as it grows under an arbitrary memory management system. We obtain the mean of each type of node, as well as the entire covariance matrix between types, whereupon weak laws of large numbers follow from the orders of magnitude (the norming constants include oscillating functions). The result can be easily interpreted for practical systems like paging, heaps and UNIX's buddy system. The covariance results call for developing a Mellin convolution method, where convoluted numerical sequences are handled by convolutions of their Mellin transforms. Furthermore, we use a method of moments to show that the distribution is asymptotically normal. The method of proof is of some generality and is applicable to other parameters like path length and size in random tries and Patricia tries.
Fringe Analysis Revisited
"... Fringe analysis is a technique used to study the average behavior of search trees. In this paper we survey the main results regarding this technique, and we improve a previous asymptotic theorem. At the same time we present new developments and applications of the theory which allow improvements in ..."
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Cited by 12 (5 self)
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Fringe analysis is a technique used to study the average behavior of search trees. In this paper we survey the main results regarding this technique, and we improve a previous asymptotic theorem. At the same time we present new developments and applications of the theory which allow improvements in several bounds on the behavior of search trees. Our examples cover binary search trees, AVL trees, 23 trees, and Btrees. Categories and Subject Descriptors: F.2.2 [Analysis of Algorithms and Problem Complexity ]: Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems  computations on discrete structures; sorting and searching; E.1 [Data Structures]; trees. Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 The Theory of Fringe Analysis 4 3 Weakly Closed Collections 9 4 Including the Level Information 11 5 Fringe Analysis, Markov Chains, and Urn Processes 13 This work was partially funded by Research Grant FONDECYT 930765. email: rbaeza@dcc.uchile.cl 1 Introduction Search trees are one of the most used data structures t...
Bounded Disorder: The Effect of the Index
"... In this paper we complete the analysis done by Ramakrishna and Mukhopadhyay for a data node in the Bounded Disorder (BD) file organization of Litwin and Lomet, by introducing the Btree index into the model. Also, we extend the analysis to the case of BD files with two partial expansions as proposed ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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In this paper we complete the analysis done by Ramakrishna and Mukhopadhyay for a data node in the Bounded Disorder (BD) file organization of Litwin and Lomet, by introducing the Btree index into the model. Also, we extend the analysis to the case of BD files with two partial expansions as proposed by Lomet. Our main contribution is a detailed analysis of search and insertion costs, and its comparison with B + trees. 1 Introduction Nowadays there are two main file organizations: hashing and tree indexing. New hashing techniques achieve single access retrieval, but are very inefficient for range search or key sequential access. On the other hand tree indices preserve the key order with a higher search cost. Litwin and Lomet [9] proposed the Bounded Disorder (BD) file organization to combine the advantages of both methods. This paper complements the analysis presented by Ramakrishna and Mukhopadhyay [14] concerning the performance of BD files, by including the index in their model. ...
An Adaptive Overflow Technique for Btrees
 Extending Data Base Technology Conference (EDBT 90
, 1990
"... We present a new overflow technique for Btrees. The technique is a hybrid of partial expansions and unbalanced splits. This technique is asymmetric and adaptive. Considering a growing file (only insertions), the storage utilization is 77% for random keys, 70% for sorted keys, and over 75% for nonu ..."
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We present a new overflow technique for Btrees. The technique is a hybrid of partial expansions and unbalanced splits. This technique is asymmetric and adaptive. Considering a growing file (only insertions), the storage utilization is 77% for random keys, 70% for sorted keys, and over 75% for nonuniform distributed keys. Similar results are achieved when we have deletions mixed with insertions. One of the main properties of this technique is that the storage utilization is very stable with respect to changes of the data distribution. This technique may be used for other bucketbased file structures, like extendible hashing or bounded disorder files. 1 Introduction The B + tree is one of the most widely used file organizations. In a B + tree all the information is stored at the lowest level (buckets), and the upper levels are a Btree index. File growth is handled by bucket splitting, that is, when a bucket overflows, a new bucket is allocated and half of the records from the o...
BTrees with Lazy Parent Split
"... A Btree variant that postpones parent node splittings due to upcoming items until a later access of the same node is examined. This technique aims to decrease the possibility of propagating splittings to upper levels so that more concurrency is achieved. Insertion and deletion algorithms are given. ..."
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A Btree variant that postpones parent node splittings due to upcoming items until a later access of the same node is examined. This technique aims to decrease the possibility of propagating splittings to upper levels so that more concurrency is achieved. Insertion and deletion algorithms are given. Time and space performance results are also reported and comparison with conventional Btrees is carried out. It is shown that this technique substantially improves the performance of small degree Btrees so that, indeed, concurrency is enhanced. 1.
The Performance Of A Multiversion Access Method
 In Proc. of the ACM SIGMOD Conference
, 1990
"... The TimeSplit Btree is an integrated index structure for a versioned timestamped database. It gradually migrates data from a current database to an historical database, records migrating when nodes split. Records valid at the split time are placed in both an historical node and a current node. Thi ..."
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The TimeSplit Btree is an integrated index structure for a versioned timestamped database. It gradually migrates data from a current database to an historical database, records migrating when nodes split. Records valid at the split time are placed in both an historical node and a current node. This implies some redundancy. Using both analysis and simulation, we characterize the amount of redundancy, the space utilization, and the record addition (insert or update) performance for a spectrum of different rates of insertion versus update. Three splitting policies are studied which alter the conditions under which either time splits or key space splits are performed. 1. INTRODUCTION A growing area of interest in the database community is in the support of multiversioned data [LoSa, AhSn, JeMR, Ston]. Multiversioned data, when updated, results in a new version of the data being created. Because the old version is retained, several versions of a record can exist, each appropriate to some...
Performance Evaluation of Lazy Deletion Methods in Rtrees
, 2002
"... Motivated by the way Rtrees are implemented in commercial databases systems, in this paper we examine several deletion techniques for Rtrees. In particular, in commercial systems Rtree entries are mapped onto relational tables, which implement their own concurrency protocols on top of existing ta ..."
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Motivated by the way Rtrees are implemented in commercial databases systems, in this paper we examine several deletion techniques for Rtrees. In particular, in commercial systems Rtree entries are mapped onto relational tables, which implement their own concurrency protocols on top of existing tablelevel concurrency mechanisms. In analogy, the actual industrial implementations of Btrees do not apply the wellknown merging procedure from textbooks in case of node underflows, but rather they apply the freeatempty technique. This way, space is sacrificed for the benefit of faster deletions and less locking operations, whereas the search performance practically remains unaffected.In this context, we examine the efficiency of modifications to the original Rtree deletion algorithm, which relax certain constraints of this algorithm and perform a controlled reorganization procedure according to a specified criterion. We present the modified algorithms and experimental results about the impact of these modifications on the tree quality, the execution time for the deletion operation and the processing time of search queries, considering several parameters. The experimental results indicate that the modified algorithms improve the efficiency of the deletion operation, while they do not affect the quality of the Rtree and its performance with respect to search operations.