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Efficient Generation in Primitive Optimality Theory
 In Proceedings of the ACL
, 1997
"... This paper introduces primitive Optimality Theory (OTP), a linguistically motivated formalization of OT. OTP specifies the class of autosegmental representations, the universal generator Gen, and the two simple families of permissible constraints. ..."
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Cited by 92 (7 self)
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This paper introduces primitive Optimality Theory (OTP), a linguistically motivated formalization of OT. OTP specifies the class of autosegmental representations, the universal generator Gen, and the two simple families of permissible constraints.
The Proper Treatment of Optimality in Computational Phonology
 Bilkent University
, 1998
"... This paper presents a novel forrealization of optimality theory. Unlike pre yions treatments of optimality in computational linguistics, starting with Ellison (1994), the new approach does not require any explicit marking and counting of constraint violations. It is based on the notion of "len ..."
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Cited by 73 (8 self)
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This paper presents a novel forrealization of optimality theory. Unlike pre yions treatments of optimality in computational linguistics, starting with Ellison (1994), the new approach does not require any explicit marking and counting of constraint violations. It is based on the notion of "lenient composition", defined as the combination of ordinary composition and priority union. If an underlying form has outputs that can meet a given constraint, lenient composition enforces the constraint; ff none of the output candidates meets the constraint, lenient composition allows all of them. For the sake of greater efficiency, we may "eniently compose" the a. relation and all the constraints into a single finitestate transducer that maps each underlying form directly into its op timal surface realizations, and vice versa.. Seen from this perspective, optimality theory is surprisingly similar to the two older strains of finitestate phonology: classical rewrite systems and twolevel models. In particular, the ranking of optimality constraints corresponds to the ordering of rewrite rules.
Evaluation, Implementation, and Extension of Primitive Optimality Theory
, 1997
"... Eisner's (1997a) Primitive Optimality Theory is a simple formal model of a subset of Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky 1993). The work presented here implements this model and extends it. The implementation is used to evaluate the Primitive Optimality Theory model, and is in itself a usef ..."
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Cited by 32 (4 self)
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Eisner's (1997a) Primitive Optimality Theory is a simple formal model of a subset of Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky 1993). The work presented here implements this model and extends it. The implementation is used to evaluate the Primitive Optimality Theory model, and is in itself a useful tool for linguistic analysis. The model is evaluated in terms of its success or failure as an attempt to formulate a cognitively plausible, computationally tractable, and mathematically formal model of the Optimality Theoretic framework of phonological theory. As part of this evaluation, a comprehensive, implemented analysis is given for the harmony and disharmony phenomena of Turkish. In addition to an evaluation of the Primitive Optimality Theory model, concrete proposals are suggested for possible extensions to the model, and for improved models that, unlike Primitive Optimality Theory, can model nonconcatenative morphology, Paradigm Uniformity, and reduplication.
Model theory and the content of OT constraints
, 2002
"... We develop an extensible description logic for stating the content of optimalitytheoretic constraints in phonology, and specify a class of structures for interpreting it. The aim is a transparent formalisation of OT. We show how to state a wide range of constraints, including markedness, input–outpu ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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We develop an extensible description logic for stating the content of optimalitytheoretic constraints in phonology, and specify a class of structures for interpreting it. The aim is a transparent formalisation of OT. We show how to state a wide range of constraints, including markedness, input–output faithfulness and base–reduplicant faithfulness. However, output–output correspondence and ‘intercandidate’ sympathy are revealed to be problematic: it is unclear that any reasonable class of structures can reconstruct their proponents’ intentions. But our contribution is positive. Proponents of both output–output correspondence and sympathy have offered alternatives that fit into the general OT picture. We show how to state these in a reasonable extension of our formalism. The problematic constraint types were developed to deal with opaque phenomena. We hope to shed new light on the debate about how to handle opacity, by subjecting some common responses to it within OT to critical investigation.
Locality in metrical typology
, 2009
"... Recent work in metrical typology within Optimality Theory has emphasised the rhythmic distribution of stress peaks by reference to clashes and lapses, compared to the more central role of foot constituency characteristic of most previous approaches. One consequence of this emphasis has been the intr ..."
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Cited by 10 (4 self)
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Recent work in metrical typology within Optimality Theory has emphasised the rhythmic distribution of stress peaks by reference to clashes and lapses, compared to the more central role of foot constituency characteristic of most previous approaches. One consequence of this emphasis has been the introduction of constraints that require reference to nonadjacent objects in the representation, such as two unstressed syllables plus a word edge or a stress peak. I argue here for a constraintbased approach to metrical typology that permits only strictly local formulations. This approach requires increased reference to foot structure, while maintaining local reference to clashes and lapses. The revised set of constraints predicts a larger set of possible stress systems, but correctly includes an attested iambic pattern excluded by recent theories.
On the Role of Locality in Learning Stress Patterns
, 2008
"... This paper presents a previously unnoticed universal property of stress patterns in the world’s languages: they are, for small neighborhoods, neighborhooddistinct. Neighborhooddistinctness is a locality condition defined in automatatheoretic terms. This universal is established by examining stres ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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This paper presents a previously unnoticed universal property of stress patterns in the world’s languages: they are, for small neighborhoods, neighborhooddistinct. Neighborhooddistinctness is a locality condition defined in automatatheoretic terms. This universal is established by examining stress patterns contained in two typological studies, Bailey (1995) and Gordon (2002). Strikingly, many logically possible— but unattested—patterns do not have this property. Not only does neighborhooddistinctness unite the attested patterns in a nontrivial way, it also naturally provides an inductive principle allowing learners to generalise from limited data. A learning algorithm is presented which generalises by failing to distinguish sameneighborhood environments perceived in the learner’s linguistic input—hence learning neighborhooddistinct patterns—as well as almost every stress pattern in the typology. In this way, this work lends support to the idea that properties of the learner can explain certain properties of the attested typology, an idea not straightforwardly available in Optimalitytheoretic and Principle and Parameter frameworks.
Three Formal Extensions to Primitive Optimality Theory
"... This paper proposes an expansion of set of prim itive constraints available within the Primitive Optimality Theory framework (Eisner, 1997a). This expansion consists of the addition of a new family of constraintsexistential implicational constraints, which allow the specification of faithfulness ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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This paper proposes an expansion of set of prim itive constraints available within the Primitive Optimality Theory framework (Eisner, 1997a). This expansion consists of the addition of a new family of constraintsexistential implicational constraints, which allow the specification of faithfulness constraints that can be satisfied at a distanceand the definition of two ways to combine simple constraints into com plax constraints, that is, constraint disjunction (Crowhurst and Hewitt, 1995) and local constra. int conjunction (Smolensky, 1995).
Taking Primitive Optimality Theory Beyond the Finite State
, 2000
"... Primitive Optimality Theory (OTP) (Eisner, 1997a; Albro, 1998), a computational model of Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky, 1993), employs a finite state machine to represent the set of active candidates at each stage of an Optimality Theoretic derivation, as well as weighted finite state m ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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Primitive Optimality Theory (OTP) (Eisner, 1997a; Albro, 1998), a computational model of Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky, 1993), employs a finite state machine to represent the set of active candidates at each stage of an Optimality Theoretic derivation, as well as weighted finite state machines to represent the constraints themselves. For some purposes, however, it would be convenient if the set of candidates were limited by some set of criteria capable of being described only in a higherlevel grammar formalism, such as a Context Free Grammar, a Context Sensitive Grammar, or a Multiple Context Free Grammar (Seki et al., 1991). Examples include reduplication and phrasal stress models. Here we introduce a mechanism for OTPlike Optimality Theory in which the constraints remain weighted finite state machines, but sets of candidates are represented by higherlevel grammars. In particular, we use multiple contextfree grammars to model reduplication in the manner of Correspondence Theory (McCarthy and Prince, 1995), and develop an extended version of the Earley Algorithm (Earley, 1970) to apply the constraints to a reduplicating candidate set.