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Models of Computation  Exploring the Power of Computing
"... Theoretical computer science treats any computational subject for which a good model can be created. Research on formal models of computation was initiated in the 1930s and 1940s by Turing, Post, Kleene, Church, and others. In the 1950s and 1960s programming languages, language translators, and oper ..."
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Cited by 57 (7 self)
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Theoretical computer science treats any computational subject for which a good model can be created. Research on formal models of computation was initiated in the 1930s and 1940s by Turing, Post, Kleene, Church, and others. In the 1950s and 1960s programming languages, language translators, and operating systems were under development and therefore became both the subject and basis for a great deal of theoretical work. The power of computers of this period was limited by slow processors and small amounts of memory, and thus theories (models, algorithms, and analysis) were developed to explore the efficient use of computers as well as the inherent complexity of problems. The former subject is known today as algorithms and data structures, the latter computational complexity. The focus of theoretical computer scientists in the 1960s on languages is reflected in the first textbook on the subject, Formal Languages and Their Relation to Automata by John Hopcroft and Jeffrey Ullman. This influential book led to the creation of many languagecentered theoretical computer science courses; many introductory theory courses today continue to reflect the content of this book and the interests of theoreticians of the 1960s and early 1970s. Although
On the convex layers of a planar set
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 1985
"... AbstractLet S be a set of n points in the Euclidean plane. The convex layers of S are the convex polygons obtained by iterating on the following procedure: compute the convex hull of S and remove its vertices from S. This process of peeling a planar point set is central in the study of robust estim ..."
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Cited by 56 (1 self)
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AbstractLet S be a set of n points in the Euclidean plane. The convex layers of S are the convex polygons obtained by iterating on the following procedure: compute the convex hull of S and remove its vertices from S. This process of peeling a planar point set is central in the study of robust estimators in statistics. It also provides valuable information on the morphology of a set of sites and has proven to be an efficient preconditioning for range search problems. An optimal algorithm is described for computing the convex layers of S. The algorithm runs in O ( n log n) time and requires O(n) space. Also addressed is the problem of determining the depth of a query point within the convex layers of S, i.e., the number of layers that enclose the query point. This is essentially a planar point location problem, for which optimal solutions are therefore known. Taking advantage of structural properties of the problem, however, a much simpler optimal solution is derived. L I.
Probabilistic selflocalization for mobile robots
 IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
, 2000
"... Localization is a critical issue in mobile robotics. If the robot does not know where it is, it, cannot effectively plan movements, locate objects, or reach goals. In this paper, we describe probabilistic selflocalization techniques for mobile robots that are based on the principal of maximumlikel ..."
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Cited by 51 (3 self)
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Localization is a critical issue in mobile robotics. If the robot does not know where it is, it, cannot effectively plan movements, locate objects, or reach goals. In this paper, we describe probabilistic selflocalization techniques for mobile robots that are based on the principal of maximumlikelihood estimation. The basic method is to compare a map generated at the current robot position to a previously generated map of the environment to prohabilistically maximize the agreement between the maps. This method is able to operate in both indoor and outdoor environments using either discrete features or an occupancy grid to represent the world map. The map may be generated using any method to detect features in the robot's surroundings, including vision, sonar, a d laser rangefinder. A global search of the pose space is performed that guarantees that the best position in a discretized pose space is found according to the probabilistic: map agreement measure. In addition, fitting the likelihood function with a parameterized smface allows both subpixel localization and uncertainty estimation to be performed. The application of these techniques in several experiments is described, including experimental localization results for the Sojourner Mars rover. 1
Planar Separators and Parallel Polygon Triangulation
, 1992
"... We show how to construct an O( p n)separator decomposition of a planar graph G in O(n) time. Such a decomposition defines a binary tree where each node corresponds to a subgraph of G and stores an O( p n)separator of that subgraph. We also show how to construct an O(n ffl )way decomposition tree ..."
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Cited by 51 (7 self)
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We show how to construct an O( p n)separator decomposition of a planar graph G in O(n) time. Such a decomposition defines a binary tree where each node corresponds to a subgraph of G and stores an O( p n)separator of that subgraph. We also show how to construct an O(n ffl )way decomposition tree in parallel in O(log n) time so that each node corresponds to a subgraph of G and stores an O(n 1=2+ffl )separator of that subgraph. We demonstrate the utility of such a separator decomposition by showing how it can be used in the design of a parallel algorithm for triangulating a simple polygon deterministically in O(log n) time using O(n= log n) processors on a CRCW PRAM. Keywords: Computational geometry, algorithmic graph theory, planar graphs, planar separators, polygon triangulation, parallel algorithms, PRAM model. 1 Introduction Let G = (V; E) be an nnode graph. An f(n)separator is an f(n)sized subset of V whose removal disconnects G into two subgraphs G 1 and G 2 each...
An Approximation Scheme for Planar Graph TSP
, 1995
"... We consider the special case of the traveling salesman problem (TSP) in which the distance metric is the shortestpath metric of a planar unweighted graph. We present a polynomialtime approximation scheme (PTAS) for this problem. ..."
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Cited by 50 (7 self)
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We consider the special case of the traveling salesman problem (TSP) in which the distance metric is the shortestpath metric of a planar unweighted graph. We present a polynomialtime approximation scheme (PTAS) for this problem.
A polynomialtime approximation scheme for weighted planar graph TSP
 PROC. 9TH ANNUAL ACMSIAM SYMPOSIUM ON DISCRETE ALGORITHMS, PP 33–41
, 1998
"... Given a planar Rraph on n nodes with costs (weights) on its edges, define;he distance between nodes i &d 2 as ’ the length of the shortest path between i and i. Consider this as &I instance of me & TSP. For any E> 6, our algorithm finds a salesman tour of total cost at most (1 + E) times optimal in ..."
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Cited by 49 (13 self)
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Given a planar Rraph on n nodes with costs (weights) on its edges, define;he distance between nodes i &d 2 as ’ the length of the shortest path between i and i. Consider this as &I instance of me & TSP. For any E> 6, our algorithm finds a salesman tour of total cost at most (1 + E) times optimal in time n”(llea). We also present a quasipolynomial time algorithm for the Steiner version of this problem.
Approximation schemes for NPhard geometric optimization problems: A survey
 Mathematical Programming
, 2003
"... NPhard geometric optimization problems arise in many disciplines. Perhaps the most famous one is the traveling salesman problem (TSP): given n nodes in ℜ 2 (more generally, in ℜ d), find the minimum length path that visits each node exactly once. If distance is computed using the Euclidean norm (di ..."
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Cited by 42 (2 self)
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NPhard geometric optimization problems arise in many disciplines. Perhaps the most famous one is the traveling salesman problem (TSP): given n nodes in ℜ 2 (more generally, in ℜ d), find the minimum length path that visits each node exactly once. If distance is computed using the Euclidean norm (distance between nodes (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is ((x1−x2) 2 +(y1−y2) 2) 1/2) then the problem is called Euclidean TSP. More generally the distance could be defined using other norms, such as ℓp norms for any p> 1. All these are subcases of the more general notion of a geometric norm or Minkowski norm. We will refer to the version of the problem with a general geometric norm as geometric TSP. Some other NPhard geometric optimization problems are Minimum Steiner Tree (“Given n points, find the smallest network connecting them,”), kTSP(“Given n points and a number k, find the shortest salesman tour that visits k points”), kMST (“Given n points and a number k, find the shortest tree that contains k points”), vehicle routing, degree restricted minimum
CommunicationEfficient Parallel Algorithms for Distributed RandomAccess Machines
 Algorithmica
, 1988
"... This paper introduces a model for parallel computation, called the distributed randomaccess machine (DRAM), in which the communication requirements of parallel algorithms can be evaluated. A DRAM is an abstraction of a parallel computer in which memory accesses are implemented by routing messages ..."
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Cited by 38 (2 self)
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This paper introduces a model for parallel computation, called the distributed randomaccess machine (DRAM), in which the communication requirements of parallel algorithms can be evaluated. A DRAM is an abstraction of a parallel computer in which memory accesses are implemented by routing messages through a communication network. A DRAM explicitly models the congestion of messages across cuts of the network. We introduce the notion of a conservative algorithm as one whose communication requirements at each step can be bounded by the congestion of pointers of the input data structure across cuts of a DRAM. We give a simple lemma that shows how to "shortcut" pointers in a data structure so that remote processors can communicate without causing undue congestion. We give O(lg n)step, linearprocessor, linearspace, conservative algorithms for a variety of problems on n node trees, such as computing treewalk numberings, finding the separator of a tree, and evaluating all subexpressions ...
Towards a Syntactic Characterization of PTAS
 In Proceedings of the 28th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 1996
"... The class PTAS is defined to consist of all NP optimization problems that permit polynomialtime approximation schemes. This paper explores the possibility that a core of PTAS may be characterized through syntactic classes endowed with restrictions on the structure of the input instances. Recent wor ..."
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Cited by 36 (6 self)
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The class PTAS is defined to consist of all NP optimization problems that permit polynomialtime approximation schemes. This paper explores the possibility that a core of PTAS may be characterized through syntactic classes endowed with restrictions on the structure of the input instances. Recent work in approximability of NPhard problems has led to the identification of a syntactic class called MAX SNP as the core of APX, the class of constantfactor approximable NP optimization problems. This has enhanced our understanding of these classes from both an algorithmic and a complexitytheoretic point of view. Our work is motivated by the hope that a similar understanding can be attained for PTAS. We argue that while the core of APX is the purely syntactic class MAX SNP, in the case of PTAS we must identify the core in terms of syntactic prescriptions for the problem definition augmented with structural restrictions on the input instances. Specifically, we propose such a unified framework...