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Sense and denotation as algorithm and value
 Lecture Notes in Logic
, 1994
"... In his classic 1892 paper On sense and denotation [12], Frege first contends that in addition to their denotation (reference, Bedeutung), proper names also have a sense (Sinn) “wherein the mode of presentation [of the denotation] is contained. ” Here proper names include common nouns like “the earth ..."
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In his classic 1892 paper On sense and denotation [12], Frege first contends that in addition to their denotation (reference, Bedeutung), proper names also have a sense (Sinn) “wherein the mode of presentation [of the denotation] is contained. ” Here proper names include common nouns like “the earth ” or “Odysseus ” and descriptive phrases like “the point of intersection of
What Is an Algorithm?
, 2000
"... Machines and Recursive Definitions 2.1 Abstract Machines The bestknown model of mechanical computation is (still) the first, introduced by Turing [18], and after half a century of study, few doubt the truth of the fundamental ChurchTuring Thesis : A function f : N # N on the natural numbers (o ..."
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Machines and Recursive Definitions 2.1 Abstract Machines The bestknown model of mechanical computation is (still) the first, introduced by Turing [18], and after half a century of study, few doubt the truth of the fundamental ChurchTuring Thesis : A function f : N # N on the natural numbers (or, more generally, on strings from a finite alphabet) is computable in principle exactly when it can be computed by a Turing Machine. The ChurchTuring Thesis grounds proofs of undecidability and it is essential for the most important applications of logic. On the other hand, it cannot be argued seriously that Turing machines model faithfully all algorithms on the natural numbers. If, for example, we code the input n in binary (rather than unary) notation, then the time needed for the computation of f(n) can sometimes be considerably shortened; and if we let the machine use two tapes rather than one, then (in some cases) we may gain a quadratic speedup of the computation, see [8]. This mea...
Higher Order Logic
 In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1994
"... Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Definin ..."
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Contents 1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 2 The expressive power of second order Logic : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.1 The language of second order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2.2 Expressing size : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2.3 Defining data types : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.4 Describing processes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.5 Expressing convergence using second order validity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 2.6 Truth definitions: the analytical hierarchy : : : : : : : : 10 2.7 Inductive definitions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 3 Canonical semantics of higher order logic : : : : : : : : : : : : 15 3.1 Tarskian semantics of second order logic : : : : : : : : : 15 3.2 Function and re
Notions of computability at higher types I
 In Logic Colloquium 2000
, 2005
"... We discuss the conceptual problem of identifying the natural notions of computability at higher types (over the natural numbers). We argue for an eclectic approach, in which one considers a wide range of possible approaches to defining higher type computability and then looks for regularities. As a ..."
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We discuss the conceptual problem of identifying the natural notions of computability at higher types (over the natural numbers). We argue for an eclectic approach, in which one considers a wide range of possible approaches to defining higher type computability and then looks for regularities. As a first step in this programme, we give an extended survey of the di#erent strands of research on higher type computability to date, bringing together material from recursion theory, constructive logic and computer science. The paper thus serves as a reasonably complete overview of the literature on higher type computability. Two sequel papers will be devoted to developing a more systematic account of the material reviewed here.
A Foundation for Metareasoning, Part I: The Proof Theory
, 1997
"... We propose a framework, called OM pairs, for the formalization of metareasoning. OM pairs allow us to generate deductively the object theory and/or the meta theory. This is done by imposing, via appropriate reflection rules, the relation we want to hold between the object theory and the meta theory. ..."
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We propose a framework, called OM pairs, for the formalization of metareasoning. OM pairs allow us to generate deductively the object theory and/or the meta theory. This is done by imposing, via appropriate reflection rules, the relation we want to hold between the object theory and the meta theory. In this paper we concentrate on the proof theory of OM pairs. We study them from three different points of view: we compare the strength of the object and meta theories generated by different OM pairs; for each OM pair we study the precise form of the object theory and meta theory; and, finally, we study three important case studies.
Monotone Inductive Definitions in Explicit Mathematics
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 1996
"... The context for this paper is Feferman's theory of explicit mathematics, T 0 . We address a problem that was posed in [F 82]. Let MID be the principle stating that any monotone operation on classifications has a least fixed point. The main objective of this paper is to show that T 0 + MID, when ..."
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The context for this paper is Feferman's theory of explicit mathematics, T 0 . We address a problem that was posed in [F 82]. Let MID be the principle stating that any monotone operation on classifications has a least fixed point. The main objective of this paper is to show that T 0 + MID, when based on classical logic, also proves the existence of nonmonotone inductive definitions that arise from arbitrary extensional operations on classifications. From the latter we deduce that MID, when adjoined to classical T 0 , leads to a much stronger theory than T 0 . 1 Introduction Prompted by the question of constructive justification of Spector's consistency proof for analysis, Kreisel initiated in 1963 the study of formal theories featuring inductive definitions (cf. [K 63]). Prooftheoretic investigations (cf. [BFPS 81], [F 82], [Ra 89]) of such theories have shown that the strength of monotone inductive definitions is not greater than that of positive or even accessibility inductive de...
The Logic Of Functional Recursion
, 1997
"... this paper are related to "program verification" very much like predicate logic and its completeness are related to axiomatic set theory; they are certainly relevant, but not of much help in establishing specific, concrete results. In its most general form, a recursive definition of a func ..."
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this paper are related to "program verification" very much like predicate logic and its completeness are related to axiomatic set theory; they are certainly relevant, but not of much help in establishing specific, concrete results. In its most general form, a recursive definition of a function is expressed by a fixpoint equation of the form
Explicit Mathematics With The Monotone Fixed Point Principle. II: Models
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 1999
"... This paper continues investigations of the monotone fixed point principle in the context of Feferman's explicit mathematics begun in [14]. Explicit mathematics is a versatile formal framework for representing Bishopstyle constructive mathematics and generalized recursion theory. The object of ..."
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This paper continues investigations of the monotone fixed point principle in the context of Feferman's explicit mathematics begun in [14]. Explicit mathematics is a versatile formal framework for representing Bishopstyle constructive mathematics and generalized recursion theory. The object of investigation here is the theory of explicit mathematics augmented by the monotone fixed point principle, which asserts that any monotone operation on classifications (Feferman's notion of set) possesses a least fixed point. To be more precise, the new axiom not merely postulates the existence of a least solution, but, by adjoining a new constant to the language, it is ensured that a fixed point is uniformly presentable as a function of the monotone operation. Let T 0 +UMID denote this extension of explicit mathematics. [14] gave lower bounds for the strength of two subtheories of T 0 +UMID in relating them to fragments of second order arithmetic based on \Pi 1 2 comprehension. [14] showed that ...
Game Representations of Complexity Classes
 Proc. Eur. Summer School on Logic, Language and Information (European Assoc. Logic, Language and Information
, 2001
"... Many descriptive and computational complexity classes have gametheoretic representations. These can be used to study the relation between different logics and complexity classes in finite model theory. ..."
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Many descriptive and computational complexity classes have gametheoretic representations. These can be used to study the relation between different logics and complexity classes in finite model theory.