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36
Learning Stochastic Logic Programs
, 2000
"... Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) have been shown to be a generalisation of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), stochastic contextfree grammars, and directed Bayes' nets. A stochastic logic program consists of a set of labelled clauses p:C where p is in the interval [0,1] and C is a firstorder range ..."
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Cited by 1050 (69 self)
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Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) have been shown to be a generalisation of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), stochastic contextfree grammars, and directed Bayes' nets. A stochastic logic program consists of a set of labelled clauses p:C where p is in the interval [0,1] and C is a firstorder rangerestricted definite clause. This paper summarises the syntax, distributional semantics and proof techniques for SLPs and then discusses how a standard Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) system, Progol, has been modied to support learning of SLPs. The resulting system 1) nds an SLP with uniform probability labels on each definition and nearmaximal Bayes posterior probability and then 2) alters the probability labels to further increase the posterior probability. Stage 1) is implemented within CProgol4.5, which differs from previous versions of Progol by allowing userdefined evaluation functions written in Prolog. It is shown that maximising the Bayesian posterior function involves nding SLPs with short derivations of the examples. Search pruning with the Bayesian evaluation function is carried out in the same way as in previous versions of CProgol. The system is demonstrated with worked examples involving the learning of probability distributions over sequences as well as the learning of simple forms of uncertain knowledge.
Clausal Discovery
 Machine Learning
, 1996
"... The clausal discovery engine Claudien is presented. Claudien is an inductive logic programming engine that fits in the knowledge discovery in databases and data mining paradigm as it discovers regularities that are valid in data. As such Claudien performs a novel induction task, which is called char ..."
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Cited by 184 (33 self)
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The clausal discovery engine Claudien is presented. Claudien is an inductive logic programming engine that fits in the knowledge discovery in databases and data mining paradigm as it discovers regularities that are valid in data. As such Claudien performs a novel induction task, which is called characteristic induction from closed observations, and which is related to existing formalizations of induction in logic. In characterising induction from closed observations, the regularities are represented by clausal theories, and the data using Herbrand interpretations. Claudien also employs a novel declarative bias mechanism to define the set of clauses that may appear in a hypothesis. Keywords : Inductive Logic Programming, Knowledge Discovery in Databases, Data Mining, Learning, Induction, Semantics for Induction, Logic of Induction, Parallel Learning. 1 Introduction Despite the fact that the areas of knowledge discovery in databases [Fayyad et al., 1995] and inductive logic programmin...
Topdown induction of clustering trees
 In 15th Intâ€™l Conf. on Machine Learning
, 1998
"... An approach to clustering is presented that adapts the basic topdown induction of decision trees method towards clustering. To this aim, it employs the principles of instance based learning. The resulting methodology is implemented in the TIC (Top down Induction of Clustering trees) system for firs ..."
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Cited by 99 (22 self)
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An approach to clustering is presented that adapts the basic topdown induction of decision trees method towards clustering. To this aim, it employs the principles of instance based learning. The resulting methodology is implemented in the TIC (Top down Induction of Clustering trees) system for first order clustering. The TIC system employs the first order logical decision tree representation of the inductive logic programming system Tilde. Various experiments with TIC are presented, in both propositional and relational domains. 1
Inductive Constraint Logic
, 1995
"... . A novel approach to learning first order logic formulae from positive and negative examples is presented. Whereas present inductive logic programming systems employ examples as true and false ground facts (or clauses), we view examples as interpretations which are true or false for the target theo ..."
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Cited by 85 (19 self)
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. A novel approach to learning first order logic formulae from positive and negative examples is presented. Whereas present inductive logic programming systems employ examples as true and false ground facts (or clauses), we view examples as interpretations which are true or false for the target theory. This viewpoint allows to reconcile the inductive logic programming paradigm with classical attribute value learning in the sense that the latter is a special case of the former. Because of this property, we are able to adapt AQ and CN2 type algorithms in order to enable learning of full first order formulae. However, whereas classical learning techniques have concentrated on concept representations in disjunctive normal form, we will use a clausal representation, which corresponds to a conjuctive normal form where each conjunct forms a constraint on positive examples. This representation duality reverses also the role of positive and negative examples, both in the heuristics and in the a...
Improving the efficiency of inductive logic programming through the use of query packs
 JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH
, 2002
"... Inductive logic programming, or relational learning, is a powerful paradigm for machine learning or data mining. However, in order for ILP to become practically useful, the efficiency of ILP systems must improve substantially. To this end, the notion of a query pack is introduced: it structures sets ..."
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Cited by 55 (19 self)
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Inductive logic programming, or relational learning, is a powerful paradigm for machine learning or data mining. However, in order for ILP to become practically useful, the efficiency of ILP systems must improve substantially. To this end, the notion of a query pack is introduced: it structures sets of similar queries. Furthermore, a mechanism is described for executing such query packs. A complexity analysis shows that considerable efficiency improvements can be achieved through the use of this query pack execution mechanism. This claim is supported by empirical results obtained by incorporating support for query pack execution in two existing learning systems.
An Experimental Comparison of Human and Machine Learning Formalisms
 In Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Machine Learning
, 1989
"... In this paper we describe the results of a set of experiments in which we compared the learning performance of human and machine learning agents. The problem involved the learning of a concept description for deciding on the legality of positions within the chess endgame King and Rook against King. ..."
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Cited by 51 (9 self)
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In this paper we describe the results of a set of experiments in which we compared the learning performance of human and machine learning agents. The problem involved the learning of a concept description for deciding on the legality of positions within the chess endgame King and Rook against King. Various amounts of background knowledge were made available to each learning agent. We concluded that the ability to produce high performance in this domain was almost entirely dependent on the ability to express firstorder predicate relationships. 1 Introduction It is a commonly held belief that the use of a restricted hypothesis language simplifies the task of learning. In this paper we investigate a simple problem in which this is not the case. We describe a set of experiments in which a number of different inductive learning agents, with various hypothesis languages, were provided with the same training and test material. In all the experiments described the training and test instances...
Compression, Significance and Accuracy
, 1992
"... Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) involves learning relational concepts from examples and background knowledge. To date all ILP learning systems make use of tests inherited from propositional and decision tree learning for evaluating the significance of hypotheses. None of these significance t ..."
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Cited by 43 (5 self)
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Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) involves learning relational concepts from examples and background knowledge. To date all ILP learning systems make use of tests inherited from propositional and decision tree learning for evaluating the significance of hypotheses. None of these significance tests take account of the relevance or utility of the background knowledge. In this paper we describe a method, called HPcompression, of evaluating the significance of a hypothesis based on the degree to which it allows compression of the observed data with respect to the background knowledge. This can be measured by comparing the lengths of the input and output tapes of a reference Turing machine which will generate the examples from the hypothesis and a set of derivational proofs. The model extends an earlier approach of Muggleton by allowing for noise. The truth values of noisy instances are switched by making use of correction codes. The utility of compression as a significance measure is evaluated empirically in three independent domains. In particular, the results show that the existence of positive compression distinguishes a larger number of significant clauses than other significance tests The method is also shown to reliably distinguish artificially introduced noise as incompressible data.
Inductive Logic Programming: derivations, successes and shortcomings
 SIGART Bulletin
, 1993
"... Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) is a research area which investigates the construction of firstorder definite clause theories from examples and background knowledge. ILP systems have been applied successfully in a number of realworld domains. These include the learning of structureactivity rules ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) is a research area which investigates the construction of firstorder definite clause theories from examples and background knowledge. ILP systems have been applied successfully in a number of realworld domains. These include the learning of structureactivity rules for drug design, finiteelement mesh design rules, rules for primarysecondary prediction of protein structure and fault diagnosis rules for satellites. There is a well established tradition of learninginthelimit results in ILP. Recently some results within Valiant's PAClearning framework have also been demonstrated for ILP systems. In this paper it is argued that algorithms can be directly derived from the formal specifications of ILP. This provides a common basis for Inverse Resolution, ExplanationBased Learning, Abduction and Relative Least General Generalisation. A new generalpurpose, efficient approach to predicate invention is demonstrated. ILP is underconstrained by its logical ...
Topdown induction of logical decision trees
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1998
"... Topdown induction of decision trees (TDIDT) is a very popular machine learning technique. Up till now, it has mainly been used for propositional learning, but seldomly for relational learning or inductive logic programming. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of logical decision ..."
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Cited by 31 (1 self)
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Topdown induction of decision trees (TDIDT) is a very popular machine learning technique. Up till now, it has mainly been used for propositional learning, but seldomly for relational learning or inductive logic programming. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of logical decision trees, which make it possible to use TDIDT in inductive logic programming. An implementation of this topdown induction of logical decision trees, the Tilde system, is presented and experimentally evaluated. 1
Distinguishing Exceptions from Noise in NonMonotonic Learning

, 1996
"... It is important for a learning program to have a reliable method of deciding whether to treat errors as noise or to include them as exceptions within a growing firstorder theory. We explore the use of an informationtheoretic measure to decide this problem within the nonmonotonic learning frame ..."
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Cited by 24 (4 self)
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It is important for a learning program to have a reliable method of deciding whether to treat errors as noise or to include them as exceptions within a growing firstorder theory. We explore the use of an informationtheoretic measure to decide this problem within the nonmonotonic learning framework defined by ClosedWorldSpecialisation. The approach adopted uses a model that consists of a reference Turing machine which accepts an encoding of a theory and proofs on its input tape and generates the observed data on the output tape. Within this model, the theory is said to "compress" data if the length of the input tape is shorter than that of the output tape. Data found to be incompressible are deemed to be "noise".