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53
PseudoRandom Generation from OneWay Functions
 PROC. 20TH STOC
, 1988
"... Pseudorandom generators are fundamental to many theoretical and applied aspects of computing. We show howto construct a pseudorandom generator from any oneway function. Since it is easy to construct a oneway function from a pseudorandom generator, this result shows that there is a pseudorandom gene ..."
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Cited by 734 (21 self)
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Pseudorandom generators are fundamental to many theoretical and applied aspects of computing. We show howto construct a pseudorandom generator from any oneway function. Since it is easy to construct a oneway function from a pseudorandom generator, this result shows that there is a pseudorandom generator iff there is a oneway function.
Entity Authentication and Key Distribution
, 1993
"... Entity authentication and key distribution are central cryptographic problems in distributed computing  but up until now, they have lacked even a meaningful definition. One consequence is that incorrect and inefficient protocols have proliferated. This paper provides the first treatment of these p ..."
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Cited by 479 (12 self)
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Entity authentication and key distribution are central cryptographic problems in distributed computing  but up until now, they have lacked even a meaningful definition. One consequence is that incorrect and inefficient protocols have proliferated. This paper provides the first treatment of these problems in the complexitytheoretic framework of modern cryptography. Addressed in detail are two problems of the symmetric, twoparty setting: mutual authentication and authenticated key exchange. For each we present a definition, protocol, and proof that the protocol meets its goal, assuming the (minimal) assumption of pseudorandom function. When this assumption is appropriately instantiated, the protocols given are practical and efficient.
Bit Commitment Using PseudoRandomness
 Journal of Cryptology
, 1991
"... We show how a pseudorandom generator can provide a bit commitment protocol. We also analyze the number of bits communicated when parties commit to many bits simultaneously, and show that the assumption of the existence of pseudorandom generators suffices to assure amortized O(1) bits of communicat ..."
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Cited by 237 (15 self)
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We show how a pseudorandom generator can provide a bit commitment protocol. We also analyze the number of bits communicated when parties commit to many bits simultaneously, and show that the assumption of the existence of pseudorandom generators suffices to assure amortized O(1) bits of communication per bit commitment.
Software Protection and Simulation on Oblivious RAMs
, 1993
"... Software protection is one of the most important issues concerning computer practice. There exist many heuristics and adhoc methods for protection, but the problem as a whole has not received the theoretical treatment it deserves. In this paper we provide theoretical treatment of software protectio ..."
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Cited by 179 (14 self)
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Software protection is one of the most important issues concerning computer practice. There exist many heuristics and adhoc methods for protection, but the problem as a whole has not received the theoretical treatment it deserves. In this paper we provide theoretical treatment of software protection. We reduce the problem of software protection to the problem of efficient simulation on oblivious RAM. A machine is oblivious if the sequence in which it accesses memory locations is equivalent for any two inputs with the same running time. For example, an oblivious Turing Machine is one for which the movement of the heads on the tapes is identical for each computation. (Thus, it is independent of the actual input.) What is the slowdown in the running time of any machine, if it is required to be oblivious? In 1979 Pippenger and Fischer showed how a twotape oblivious Turing Machine can simulate, online, a onetape Turing Machine, with a logarithmic slowdown in the running time. We s...
How to Construct ConstantRound ZeroKnowledge Proof Systems for NP
 Journal of Cryptology
, 1995
"... Constantround zeroknowledge proof systems for every language in NP are presented, assuming the existence of a collection of clawfree functions. In particular, it follows that such proof systems exist assuming the intractability of either the Discrete Logarithm Problem or the Factoring Problem for ..."
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Cited by 160 (8 self)
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Constantround zeroknowledge proof systems for every language in NP are presented, assuming the existence of a collection of clawfree functions. In particular, it follows that such proof systems exist assuming the intractability of either the Discrete Logarithm Problem or the Factoring Problem for Blum Integers.
Unconditionally Secure Quantum Bit Commitment is Impossible,” Phys
 Rev. Lett
, 1997
"... The claim of quantum cryptography has always been that it can provide protocols that are unconditionally secure, that is, for which the security does not rely on any restriction on the time, space or technology available to the cheaters. We show that this claim cannot be applied to any quantum bit c ..."
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Cited by 138 (10 self)
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The claim of quantum cryptography has always been that it can provide protocols that are unconditionally secure, that is, for which the security does not rely on any restriction on the time, space or technology available to the cheaters. We show that this claim cannot be applied to any quantum bit commitment protocol. We briefly discuss the consequences for quantum cryptography.
BPP has Subexponential Time Simulations unless EXPTIME has Publishable Proofs (Extended Abstract)
, 1993
"... ) L'aszl'o Babai Noam Nisan y Lance Fortnow z Avi Wigderson University of Chicago Hebrew University Abstract We show that BPP can be simulated in subexponential time for infinitely many input lengths unless exponential time ffl collapses to the second level of the polynomialtime ..."
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Cited by 114 (9 self)
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) L'aszl'o Babai Noam Nisan y Lance Fortnow z Avi Wigderson University of Chicago Hebrew University Abstract We show that BPP can be simulated in subexponential time for infinitely many input lengths unless exponential time ffl collapses to the second level of the polynomialtime hierarchy, ffl has polynomialsize circuits and ffl has publishable proofs (EXPTIME=MA). We also show that BPP is contained in subexponential time unless exponential time has publishable proofs for infinitely many input lengths. In addition, we show BPP can be simulated in subexponential time for infinitely many input lengths unless there exist unary languages in MA n P . The proofs are based on the recent characterization of the power of multiprover interactive protocols and on random selfreducibility via low degree polynomials. They exhibit an interplay between Boolean circuit simulation, interactive proofs and classical complexity classes. An important feature of this proof is that it does not ...
Checking the Correctness of Memories
 Algorithmica
, 1995
"... We extend the notion of program checking to include programs which alter their environment. In particular, we consider programs which store and retrieve data from memory. The model we consider allows the checker a small amount of reliable memory. The checker is presented with a sequence of reques ..."
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Cited by 98 (10 self)
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We extend the notion of program checking to include programs which alter their environment. In particular, we consider programs which store and retrieve data from memory. The model we consider allows the checker a small amount of reliable memory. The checker is presented with a sequence of requests (online) to a data structure which must reside in a large but unreliable memory. We view the data structure as being controlled by an adversary. We want the checker to perform each operation in the input sequence using its reliable memory and the unreliable data structure so that any error in the operation of the structure will be detected by the checker with high probability. We present checkers for various data structures. We prove lower bounds of log n on the amount of reliable memory needed by these checkers where n is the size of the structure. The lower bounds are information theoretic and apply under various assumptions. We also show timespace tradeoffs for checking random access memories as a generalization of those for coherent functions. 1
Practical Quantum Oblivious Transfer
, 1992
"... We describe a protocol for quantum oblivious transfer , utilizing faint pulses of polarized light, by which one of two mutually distrustful parties ("Alice") transmits two onebit messages in such a way that the other party ("Bob") can choose which message he gets but cannot obta ..."
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Cited by 76 (13 self)
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We describe a protocol for quantum oblivious transfer , utilizing faint pulses of polarized light, by which one of two mutually distrustful parties ("Alice") transmits two onebit messages in such a way that the other party ("Bob") can choose which message he gets but cannot obtain information about both messages (he will learn his chosen bit's value with exponentially small error probability and may gain at most exponentially little information about the value of the other bit), and Alice will be entirely ignorant of which bit he received. Neither party can cheat (ie deviate from the protocol while appearing to follow it) in such a way as to obtain more information than what is given by the description of the protocol. Our protocol is easy to modify in order to implement the AllorNothing Disclosure of one out of two string messages, and it can be used to implement bit commitment and oblivious circuit evaluation without complexitytheoretic assumptions, in a way that remains secure e...