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On Memory Limitations In Natural Language Processing
, 1980
"... This paper though will not discuss bound anaphora. Righi Node Raising  133  Section 9.3. I (488) '1 took and you went ..."
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Cited by 29 (1 self)
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This paper though will not discuss bound anaphora. Righi Node Raising  133  Section 9.3. I (488) '1 took and you went
On Minimalist Attribute Grammars and Macro Tree Transducers
 Linguistic Form and its Computation
"... In this paper we extend the work by Michaelis (1999) which shows how to encode an arbitrary Minimalist Grammar in the sense of Stabler (1997) into a weakly equivalent multiple contextfree grammar (MCFG). By viewing MCFGrules as terms in a free Lawvere theory we can translate a given MCFG into a ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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In this paper we extend the work by Michaelis (1999) which shows how to encode an arbitrary Minimalist Grammar in the sense of Stabler (1997) into a weakly equivalent multiple contextfree grammar (MCFG). By viewing MCFGrules as terms in a free Lawvere theory we can translate a given MCFG into a regular tree grammar. The latter is characterizable by both a tree automaton and a corresponding formula in monadic secondorder (MSO) logic. The trees of the resulting regular tree language are then unpacked into the intended \linguistic" trees both through an MSO transduction based upon treewalking automata and through a macro tree transduction. This twostep approach gives an operational as well as a logical description of the tree sets involved. As an interlude we show that MCFGs can be regarded as a particularly simple attribute grammar. 1 Introduction Algebraic, logical and regular characterizations of (tree) languages provide a natural framework for the denotational and opera...
The value of symbolic computation
 Ecological Psychology
, 2002
"... Standard generative linguistic theory, which uses discrete symbolic models of cognition, has some strengths and weaknesses. It is strong on providing a network of outposts that make scientific travel in the jungles of natural language feasible. It is weak in that it currently depends on the elaborat ..."
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Cited by 9 (2 self)
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Standard generative linguistic theory, which uses discrete symbolic models of cognition, has some strengths and weaknesses. It is strong on providing a network of outposts that make scientific travel in the jungles of natural language feasible. It is weak in that it currently depends on the elaborate and unformalized use of intuition to develop critical supporting assumptions about each data point. In this regard, it is not in a position to characterize natural language systems in the lawful terms that ecological psychologists strive for. Connectionist learning models offer some help: They define lawful relations between linguistic environments and language systems. But our understanding of them is currently weak, especially when it comes to natural language syntax. Fortunately, symbolic linguistic analysis can help connectionism if the two meet via dynamical systems theory. I discuss a case in point: Insights from linguistic explorations of natural language syntax appear to have identified information structures that are particularly relevant to understanding ecologically appealing but analytically mysterious connectionist learning models. This article is concerned with the relation between discrete, symbolic systems of the
An Operational and Denotational Approach to NonContextFreeness
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2000
"... The main result of this paper is a description of linguistically motivated noncontextfree phenomena equivalently in terms of regular tree languages (to express the recursive properties) and both a logical and an operational perspective (to establish the intended linguistic relations). The result is ..."
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Cited by 8 (2 self)
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The main result of this paper is a description of linguistically motivated noncontextfree phenomena equivalently in terms of regular tree languages (to express the recursive properties) and both a logical and an operational perspective (to establish the intended linguistic relations). The result is exemplified with a particular noncontextfree phenomenon, namely crossserial dependencies in natural languages such as Swiss German or Dutch. The logical description is specified in terms of binary monadic secondorder (MSO) formulas and the operational description is achieved by means of a linear and nondeleting macro tree transducer. Besides giving a grammatical presentation for the regular tree language we shall also specify an implementation in the form of a finitestate (tree) automaton to emphasize the effectivity of our approach.
A Formal Model for ContextFree Languages Augmented with Reduplication
 Computational Linguistics
, 1989
"... Family of Languages), which in some circles invests the class with a certain respectability. This is because such closure properties determine much of the character of wellknown language classes, such as contextfree languages and finitestate languages. (A Full AFL is any class of languages that c ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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Family of Languages), which in some circles invests the class with a certain respectability. This is because such closure properties determine much of the character of wellknown language classes, such as contextfree languages and finitestate languages. (A Full AFL is any class of languages that contains at least one nonempty language and that is closed under union, Afree concatenation of two lan guages, homomorphism, inverse homomorphism, and intersection with any finitestate language. See Salomaa 1973, for more details.) The notion of a finitestate transduction is important when analyzing pushdown machines. If a finitestate control reads a string of input while pushing some string onto the stack (without any popping), then the string in the stack is a finitestate transduction of the input string. Unfortunately, the concept of a finitestate transduction is fading out of the popular textbooks. We will therefore give a brief informal definition of the concept.
Phrasing It Differently
 in « Recent Works in MeaningText Theory in Honour of Igor Melcuk
, 2003
"... This paper investigates the notion of phrase in non phrase structure grammars. Following Tesnire and Mel'cuk, we defend the idea that the word order must be separated from the syntactic representation proper and that phrases only intervene when word order is at play. We try to characterize a new not ..."
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This paper investigates the notion of phrase in non phrase structure grammars. Following Tesnire and Mel'cuk, we defend the idea that the word order must be separated from the syntactic representation proper and that phrases only intervene when word order is at play. We try to characterize a new notion we call topological phrase (partially inherited from the classical topological model for German) and distinguish it from the classical notion of phrase in Xbar Syntax. Our discussion is illustrated by the puzzling case of German word order for which we propose a simple and powerful grammar giving us all the possible word orders and topological phrase structures of verbal syntax. This discussion of the notion of phrase opens a new perspective for the comparison of the entire architectures of Chomskyan and Mel'cukian linguistic models.
CROSSING DEPENDENCIES IN PERSIAN
, 2006
"... and by majority vote has been found to be satisfactory. ..."
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and by majority vote has been found to be satisfactory.
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"... Regular languages correspond exactly.to those languages that can be recognized by a finitestate automaton. Add a stack to that automaton, and one obtains the contextfree languages, and so on. Probably all of us learned at some point in our university studies about the Chomsky hierarchy of formal ..."
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Regular languages correspond exactly.to those languages that can be recognized by a finitestate automaton. Add a stack to that automaton, and one obtains the contextfree languages, and so on. Probably all of us learned at some point in our university studies about the Chomsky hierarchy of formal languages and the duality between the form of their rewriting systems and the automata or computational resources necessary to recognize them. What is perhaps less well known is that yet another way of characterizing formal languages is provided by mathematical logic, namely in terms of the kind and number of variables, quantifiers, and operators that a logical language requires in order to define another formal language. This mode of characterization, which is subsumed by an area of research called descriptive complexity theory, is at once more declarative than an automaton or rewriting system, more flexible in terms of the primitive relations or concepts that it can provide resort to, and less wedded to the tacit, not at all unproblematic, assumption that the right way to view any language, including natural language, is as a set of strings.
Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Discontinuous Lambek Calculus
"... Abstract The search for a full treatment of wrapping in type logical grammar has been a task of longstanding. In this paper we present a calculus for discontinuity addressing this challenge, ωDL. The calculus allows an unbounded number of points of discontinuity (hence the prefix ω) and includes ..."
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Abstract The search for a full treatment of wrapping in type logical grammar has been a task of longstanding. In this paper we present a calculus for discontinuity addressing this challenge, ωDL. The calculus allows an unbounded number of points of discontinuity (hence the prefix ω) and includes both deterministic and nondeterministic discontinuous connectives. We believe that it constitutes a general and natural extension of the Lambek calculus L. Like the Lambek calculus it has a sequent calculus which is a sequence logic without structural rules, and it enjoys such properties as Cutelimination, the subformula property and decidability. By nDL we refer to ωDL restricted to at most n points of discontinuity. 0DL is the original Lambek calculus L. Of particular interest is 1DL in which the unicity of the point of discontinuity means that the deterministic and nondeterministic discontinuous connectives coincide. We illustrate 1DL with linguistic applications to medial extraction, discontinuous idioms, parentheticals, gapping, VP ellipsis, reflexivization, quantification, piedpiping, appositive relativisation, comparative subdeletion, and crossserial dependencies. We further illustrate deterministic 2DL with linguistic