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The Quadratic Assignment Problem: A Survey and Recent Developments
 In Proceedings of the DIMACS Workshop on Quadratic Assignment Problems, volume 16 of DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1994
"... . Quadratic Assignment Problems model many applications in diverse areas such as operations research, parallel and distributed computing, and combinatorial data analysis. In this paper we survey some of the most important techniques, applications, and methods regarding the quadratic assignment probl ..."
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Cited by 113 (16 self)
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. Quadratic Assignment Problems model many applications in diverse areas such as operations research, parallel and distributed computing, and combinatorial data analysis. In this paper we survey some of the most important techniques, applications, and methods regarding the quadratic assignment problem. We focus our attention on recent developments. 1. Introduction Given a set N = f1; 2; : : : ; ng and n \Theta n matrices F = (f ij ) and D = (d kl ), the quadratic assignment problem (QAP) can be stated as follows: min p2\Pi N n X i=1 n X j=1 f ij d p(i)p(j) + n X i=1 c ip(i) ; where \Pi N is the set of all permutations of N . One of the major applications of the QAP is in location theory where the matrix F = (f ij ) is the flow matrix, i.e. f ij is the flow of materials from facility i to facility j, and D = (d kl ) is the distance matrix, i.e. d kl represents the distance from location k to location l [62, 67, 137]. The cost of simultaneously assigning facility i to locat...
Semidefinite Programming and Combinatorial Optimization
 DOC. MATH. J. DMV
, 1998
"... We describe a few applications of semide nite programming in combinatorial optimization. ..."
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Cited by 111 (1 self)
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We describe a few applications of semide nite programming in combinatorial optimization.
Spectral Partitioning: The More Eigenvectors, the Better
 PROC. ACM/IEEE DESIGN AUTOMATION CONF
, 1995
"... The graph partitioning problem is to divide the vertices of a graph into disjoint clusters to minimize the total cost of the edges cut by the clusters. A spectral partitioning heuristic uses the graph's eigenvectors to construct a geometric representation of the graph (e.g., linear orderings) w ..."
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Cited by 75 (3 self)
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The graph partitioning problem is to divide the vertices of a graph into disjoint clusters to minimize the total cost of the edges cut by the clusters. A spectral partitioning heuristic uses the graph's eigenvectors to construct a geometric representation of the graph (e.g., linear orderings) which are subsequently partitioned. Our main result shows that when all the eigenvectors are used, graph partitioning reduces to a new vector partitioning problem. This result implies that as many eigenvectors as are practically possible should be used to construct a solution. This philosophy isincontrast to that of the widelyused spectral bipartitioning (SB) heuristic (which uses a single eigenvector to construct a 2way partitioning) and several previous multiway partitioning heuristics [7][10][16][26][37] (which usek eigenvectors to construct a kway partitioning). Our result motivates a simple ordering heuristic that is a multipleeigenvector extension of SB. This heuristic not only signi cantly outperforms SB, but can also yield excellent multiway VLSI circuit partitionings as compared to [1] [10]. Our experiments suggest that the vector partitioning perspective opens the door to new and effective heuristics.
Optimality Conditions and Duality Theory for Minimizing Sums of the Largest Eigenvalues of Symmetric Matrices
, 1993
"... This paper gives max characterizations for the sum of the largest eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix. The elements which achieve the maximum provide a concise characterization of the generalized gradient of the eigenvalue sum in terms of a dual matrix. The dual matrix provides the information requi ..."
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Cited by 67 (3 self)
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This paper gives max characterizations for the sum of the largest eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix. The elements which achieve the maximum provide a concise characterization of the generalized gradient of the eigenvalue sum in terms of a dual matrix. The dual matrix provides the information required to either verify firstorder optimality conditions at a point or to generate a descent direction for the eigenvalue sum from that point, splitting a multiple eigenvalue if necessary. A model minimization algorithm is outlined, and connections with the classical literature on sums of eigenvalues are explained. Sums of the largest eigenvalues in absolute value are also addressed.
A recipe for semidefinite relaxation for 01 quadratic programming
 JOURNAL OF GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION
, 1995
"... We review various relaxations of (0,1)quadratic programming problems. These include semidefinite programs, parametric trust region problems and concave quadratic maximization. All relaxations that we consider lead to efficiently solvable problems. The main contributions of the paper are the followi ..."
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Cited by 58 (7 self)
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We review various relaxations of (0,1)quadratic programming problems. These include semidefinite programs, parametric trust region problems and concave quadratic maximization. All relaxations that we consider lead to efficiently solvable problems. The main contributions of the paper are the following. Using Lagrangian duality, we prove equivalence of the relaxations in a unified and simple way. Some of these equivalences have been known previously, but our approach leads to short and transparent proofs. Moreover we extend the approach to the case of equality constrained problems by taking the squared linear constraints into the objective function. We show how this technique can be applied to the Quadratic Assignment Problem, the Graph Partition Problem and the MaxClique Problem. Finally we show our relaxation to be best possible among all quadratic majorants with zero trace.
Graph Partitioning Algorithms With Applications To Scientific Computing
 Parallel Numerical Algorithms
, 1997
"... Identifying the parallelism in a problem by partitioning its data and tasks among the processors of a parallel computer is a fundamental issue in parallel computing. This problem can be modeled as a graph partitioning problem in which the vertices of a graph are divided into a specified number of su ..."
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Cited by 49 (0 self)
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Identifying the parallelism in a problem by partitioning its data and tasks among the processors of a parallel computer is a fundamental issue in parallel computing. This problem can be modeled as a graph partitioning problem in which the vertices of a graph are divided into a specified number of subsets such that few edges join two vertices in different subsets. Several new graph partitioning algorithms have been developed in the past few years, and we survey some of this activity. We describe the terminology associated with graph partitioning, the complexity of computing good separators, and graphs that have good separators. We then discuss early algorithms for graph partitioning, followed by three new algorithms based on geometric, algebraic, and multilevel ideas. The algebraic algorithm relies on an eigenvector of a Laplacian matrix associated with the graph to compute the partition. The algebraic algorithm is justified by formulating graph partitioning as a quadratic assignment p...
Eigenvalues in combinatorial optimization
, 1993
"... In the last decade many important applications of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of graphs in combinatorial optimization were discovered. The number and importance of these results is so fascinating that it makes sense to present this survey. ..."
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Cited by 44 (0 self)
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In the last decade many important applications of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of graphs in combinatorial optimization were discovered. The number and importance of these results is so fascinating that it makes sense to present this survey.
Nonpolyhedral Relaxations of GraphBisection Problems
, 1993
"... We study the problem of finding the minimum bisection of a graph into two parts of prescribed sizes. We formulate two lower bounds on the problem by relaxing node and edgeincidence vectors of cuts. We prove that both relaxations provide the same bound. The main fact we prove is that the duality be ..."
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Cited by 39 (9 self)
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We study the problem of finding the minimum bisection of a graph into two parts of prescribed sizes. We formulate two lower bounds on the problem by relaxing node and edgeincidence vectors of cuts. We prove that both relaxations provide the same bound. The main fact we prove is that the duality between the relaxed edge and nodevectors preserves very natural cardinality constraints on cuts. We present an analogous result also for the maxcut problem, and show a relation between the edge relaxation and some other optimality criteria studied before. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications for a practical computational approach.
A computational study of graph partitioning
, 1994
"... Let G = (N, E) be an edgeweighted undirected graph. The graph partitioning problem is the problem of partitioning the node set N into k disjoint subsets of specified sizes so as to minimize the total weight of the edges connecting nodes in distinct subsets of the partition. We present a numerical s ..."
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Cited by 37 (11 self)
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Let G = (N, E) be an edgeweighted undirected graph. The graph partitioning problem is the problem of partitioning the node set N into k disjoint subsets of specified sizes so as to minimize the total weight of the edges connecting nodes in distinct subsets of the partition. We present a numerical study on the use of eigenvaluebased techniques to find upper and lower bounds for this problem. Results for bisecting graphs with up to several thousand nodes are given, and for small graphs some trisection results are presented. We show that the techniques are very robust and consistently produce upper and lower bounds having a relative gap of typically a few percentage points.