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Hypergraphs and degrees of parallelism: A completeness result, in: I. Walukiewicz (Ed
 Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of Foundations of Software Science and Computation Structures – FOSSACS 2004
, 2004
"... Abstract. In order to study relative PCFdenability of boolean functions, we associate a hypergraph Hf to any boolean function f (following [2, 4]). We introduce the notion of timed hypergraph morphism and show that it is: { Sound: if there exists a timed morphism from Hf to Hg then f is PCFde nab ..."
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Abstract. In order to study relative PCFdenability of boolean functions, we associate a hypergraph Hf to any boolean function f (following [2, 4]). We introduce the notion of timed hypergraph morphism and show that it is: { Sound: if there exists a timed morphism from Hf to Hg then f is PCFde nable relatively to g. { Complete for subsequential functions: if f is PCFdenable relatively to g, and g is subsequential, then there exists a timed morphism from Hf to Hg. 1
A “Book ” proof that parallel convergence tester cannot implement parallel or
, 2009
"... I give a short and elementary proof that paralle convergence tester cannot implement parallel or. Parallel convergence tester is a twoargument function c: O → O × O with the following graph: c(⊥, ⊥) = ⊥ c(⊥, ⊤) = ⊤ c(⊤, ⊥) = ⊤ c(⊤, ⊤) = ⊤. Parallel or is the wellknown function p: B × B → B de ..."
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I give a short and elementary proof that paralle convergence tester cannot implement parallel or. Parallel convergence tester is a twoargument function c: O → O × O with the following graph: c(⊥, ⊥) = ⊥ c(⊥, ⊤) = ⊤ c(⊤, ⊥) = ⊤ c(⊤, ⊤) = ⊤. Parallel or is the wellknown function p: B × B → B defined on the domain of booleans B with the following graph: p(ff,ff) = ff p(tt, ⊥) = tt p(⊥,ff) = ⊥ p(⊥,tt) = tt p(ff, ⊥) = ⊥ with all other values being determined by monotonicity. These functions arise in the discussion of full abstraction of PCF [Plo77] and the lazy λcalculus [AO93]. It is now wellknown that the lattice of degrees of parallelism is very rich and infinite in two directions [Buc97, PP01]: the fact that one cannot implement p with c is a tiny part of these results. There is, however, a very simple proof that PCF with c cannot implement p assuming that PCF by itself cannot implement p. Suppose that such an implementation exists so that there is some pure PCF context C[·] with C[c] = p. The functional λx.C[x] is monotone. Therefore the pure PCF 1 term C[λu.⊤] is extensionally above p, but p is maximal so the pure PCF term C[λu.⊤] = p, a contradiction. In fact this argument applies to any function with return type O even if it is horribly nonrecursive.