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85
GTM: The generative topographic mapping
 Neural Computation
, 1998
"... Latent variable models represent the probability density of data in a space of several dimensions in terms of a smaller number of latent, or hidden, variables. A familiar example is factor analysis which is based on a linear transformations between the latent space and the data space. In this paper ..."
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Cited by 275 (5 self)
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Latent variable models represent the probability density of data in a space of several dimensions in terms of a smaller number of latent, or hidden, variables. A familiar example is factor analysis which is based on a linear transformations between the latent space and the data space. In this paper we introduce a form of nonlinear latent variable model called the Generative Topographic Mapping for which the parameters of the model can be determined using the EM algorithm. GTM provides a principled alternative to the widely used SelfOrganizing Map (SOM) of Kohonen (1982), and overcomes most of the significant limitations of the SOM. We demonstrate the performance of the GTM algorithm on a toy problem and on simulated data from flow diagnostics for a multiphase oil pipeline. Copyright c○MIT Press (1998). 1
Improving Regression Estimation: Averaging Methods for Variance Reduction with Extensions to General Convex Measure Optimization
, 1993
"... ..."
Population shape regression from random design data
 IN: PROC. OF ICCV 2007
, 2007
"... Regression analysis is a powerful tool for the study of changes in a dependent variable as a function of an independent regressor variable, and in particular it is applicable to the study of anatomical growth and shape change. When the underlying process can be modeled by parameters in a Euclidean s ..."
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Cited by 51 (10 self)
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Regression analysis is a powerful tool for the study of changes in a dependent variable as a function of an independent regressor variable, and in particular it is applicable to the study of anatomical growth and shape change. When the underlying process can be modeled by parameters in a Euclidean space, classical regression techniques [13, 34] are applicable and have been studied extensively. However, recent work suggests that attempts to describe anatomical shapes using flat Euclidean spaces undermines our ability to represent natural biological variability [9, 11]. In this paper we develop a method for regression analysis of general, manifoldvalued data. Specifically, we extend NadarayaWatson kernel regression by recasting the regression problem in terms of Fréchet expectation. Although this method is quite general, our driving problem is the study anatomical shape change as a function of age from random design image data. We demonstrate our method by analyzing shape change in the brain from a random design dataset of MR images of 89 healthy adults ranging in age from 22 to 79 years. To study the small scale changes in anatomy, we use the infinite dimensional manifold of diffeomorphic transformations, with an associated metric. We regress a representative anatomical shape, as a function of age, from this population.
Functional Models for Regression Tree Leaves
, 1997
"... This paper presents a study about functional models for regression tree leaves. We evaluate experimentally several alternatives to the averages commonly used in regression trees. We have implemented a regression tree learner (HTL) that is able to use several alternative models in the tree leaves. We ..."
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Cited by 25 (3 self)
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This paper presents a study about functional models for regression tree leaves. We evaluate experimentally several alternatives to the averages commonly used in regression trees. We have implemented a regression tree learner (HTL) that is able to use several alternative models in the tree leaves. We study the effect on accuracy and the computational cost of these alternatives. The experiments carried out on 11 data sets revealed that it is possible to significantly outperform the "naive" averages of regression trees. Among the four alternative models that we evaluated, kernel regressors were usually the best in terms of accuracy. Our study also indicates that by integrating regression trees with other regression approaches we are able to overcome the limitations of individual methods both in terms of accuracy as well as in computational efficiency. 1 INTRODUCTION In this paper we present an empirical evaluation of alternative regression models for the leaves of decision trees that dea...
Superresolution without Explicit Subpixel Motion Estimation
"... The need for precise (subpixel accuracy) motion estimates in conventional superresolution has limited its applicability to only video sequences with relatively simple motions such as global translational or affine displacements. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for adaptive enhancement ..."
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Cited by 21 (9 self)
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The need for precise (subpixel accuracy) motion estimates in conventional superresolution has limited its applicability to only video sequences with relatively simple motions such as global translational or affine displacements. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for adaptive enhancement and spatiotemporal upscaling of videos containing complex activities without explicit need for accurate motion estimation. Our approach is based on multidimensional kernel regression, where each pixel in the video sequence is approximated with a 3D local (Taylor) series, capturing the essential local behavior of its spatiotemporal neighborhood. The coefficients of this series are estimated by solving a local weighted leastsquares problem, where the weights are a function of the 3D spacetime orientation in the neighborhood. As this framework is fundamentally based upon the comparison of neighboring pixels in both space and time, it implicitly contains information about the local motion of the pixels across time, therefore rendering unnecessary an explicit computation of motions of modest size. The proposed approach not only significantly widens the applicability of superresolution methods to a broad variety of video sequences containing complex motions, but also yields improved overall performance. Using several examples, we illustrate that the developed algorithm has superresolution capabilities that provide
On image denoising methods
 Technical Note, CMLA (Centre de Mathematiques et de Leurs Applications
, 2004
"... The search for efficient image denoising methods still is a valid challenge, at the crossing of functional analysis and statistics. In spite of the sophistication of the recently proposed methods, most algorithms have not yet attained a desirable level of applicability. All show an outstanding perfo ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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The search for efficient image denoising methods still is a valid challenge, at the crossing of functional analysis and statistics. In spite of the sophistication of the recently proposed methods, most algorithms have not yet attained a desirable level of applicability. All show an outstanding performance when the image model corresponds to the algorithm assumptions, but fail in general and create artifacts or remove image fine structures. The main focus of this paper is, first, to define a general mathematical and experimental methodology to compare and classify classical image denoising algorithms, second, to propose an algorithm (Non Local Means) addressing the preservation of structure in a digital image. The mathematical analysis is based on the analysis of the “method noise”, defined as the difference between a digital image and its denoised version. The NLmeans algorithm is also proven to be asymptotically optimal under a generic statistical image model. The denoising performance of all considered methods are compared in four ways; mathematical: asymptotic order of magnitude of the method noise under regularity assumptions; perceptualmathematical: the algorithms artifacts and their explanation as a violation of the image model; quantitative experimental: by tables of L 2 distances of the denoised version to the original image. The most powerful evaluation method seems, however, to be the visualization of the method noise on natural images. The more this method noise looks like a real white noise, the better the method. 1
Variance Estimation in Nonparametric Regression via the Difference Sequence Method
 Ann. Statist
, 2006
"... Consider a Gaussian nonparametric regression problem having both an unknown mean function and unknown variance function. This article presents a class of differencebased kernel estimators for the variance function. Optimal convergence rates that are uniform over broad functional classes and bandwid ..."
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Cited by 14 (5 self)
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Consider a Gaussian nonparametric regression problem having both an unknown mean function and unknown variance function. This article presents a class of differencebased kernel estimators for the variance function. Optimal convergence rates that are uniform over broad functional classes and bandwidths are fully characterized, and asymptotic normality is also established. We also show that for suitable asymptotic formulations our estimators achieve the minimax rate.
Deblurring Using Regularized LocallyAdaptive Kernel Regression
"... Kernel regression is an effective tool for a variety of image processing tasks such as denoising and interpolation [1]. In this paper, we extend the use of kernel regression for deblurring applications. In some earlier examples in the literature, such nonparametric deblurring was suboptimally perf ..."
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Cited by 9 (7 self)
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Kernel regression is an effective tool for a variety of image processing tasks such as denoising and interpolation [1]. In this paper, we extend the use of kernel regression for deblurring applications. In some earlier examples in the literature, such nonparametric deblurring was suboptimally performed in two sequential steps, namely, denoising followed by deblurring. In contrast, our optimal solution jointly denoises and deblurs images. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of an effective and novel image prior that generalizes some of the most popular regularization techniques in the literature. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Index Terms nonparametric estimation, kernel regression, local polynomial, spatially adaptive, deblurring, denoising, nonlinear filter. I.
Structured Ranking Learning using Cumulative Distribution Networks
"... Ranking is at the heart of many information retrieval applications. Unlike standard regression or classification in which we predict outputs independently, in ranking we are interested in predicting structured outputs so that misranking one object can significantly affect whether we correctly rank t ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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Ranking is at the heart of many information retrieval applications. Unlike standard regression or classification in which we predict outputs independently, in ranking we are interested in predicting structured outputs so that misranking one object can significantly affect whether we correctly rank the other objects. In practice, the problem of ranking involves a large number of objects to be ranked and either approximate structured prediction methods are required, or assumptions of independence between object scores must be made in order to make the problem tractable. We present a probabilistic method for learning to rank using the graphical modelling framework of cumulative distribution networks (CDNs), where we can take into account the structure inherent to the problem of ranking by modelling the joint cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) over multiple pairwise preferences. We apply our framework to the problem of document retrieval in the case of the OHSUMED benchmark dataset. We will show that the RankNet, ListNet and ListMLE probabilistic models can be viewed as particular instances of CDNs and that our proposed framework allows for the exploration of a broad class of flexible structured loss functionals for learning to rank. 1