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100
A theory of type polymorphism in programming
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1978
"... The aim of this work is largely a practical one. A widely employed style of programming, particularly in structureprocessing languages which impose no discipline of types, entails defining procedures which work well on objects of a wide variety. We present a formal type discipline for such polymorp ..."
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Cited by 935 (0 self)
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The aim of this work is largely a practical one. A widely employed style of programming, particularly in structureprocessing languages which impose no discipline of types, entails defining procedures which work well on objects of a wide variety. We present a formal type discipline for such polymorphic procedures in the context of a simple programming language, and a compile time typechecking algorithm w which enforces the discipline. A Semantic Soundness Theorem (based on a formal semantics for the language) states that welltype programs cannot “go wrong ” and a Syntactic Soundness Theorem states that if fl accepts a program then it is well typed. We also discuss extending these results to richer languages; a typechecking algorithm based on w is in fact already implemented and working, for the metalanguage ML in the Edinburgh LCF system, 1.
The Lazy Lambda Calculus
 Research Topics in Functional Programming
, 1990
"... Introduction The commonly accepted basis for functional programming is the calculus; and it is folklore that the calculus is the prototypical functional language in puri ed form. But what is the calculus? The syntax is simple and classical; variables, abstraction and application in the pure cal ..."
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Cited by 238 (3 self)
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Introduction The commonly accepted basis for functional programming is the calculus; and it is folklore that the calculus is the prototypical functional language in puri ed form. But what is the calculus? The syntax is simple and classical; variables, abstraction and application in the pure calculus, with applied calculi obtained by adding constants. The further elaboration of the theory, covering conversion, reduction, theories and models, is laid out in Barendregt's already classical treatise [Bar84]. It is instructive to recall the following crux, which occurs rather early in that work (p. 39): Meaning of terms: rst attempt The meaning of a term is its normal form (if it exists). All terms without normal forms are identi ed. This proposal incorporates such a simple and natural interpretation of the calculus as
A Foundation for Actor Computation
 Journal of Functional Programming
, 1998
"... We present an actor language which is an extension of a simple functional language, and provide a precise operational semantics for this extension. Actor configurations represent open distributed systems, by which we mean that the specification of an actor system explicitly takes into account the in ..."
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Cited by 222 (51 self)
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We present an actor language which is an extension of a simple functional language, and provide a precise operational semantics for this extension. Actor configurations represent open distributed systems, by which we mean that the specification of an actor system explicitly takes into account the interface with external components. We study the composability of such systems. We define and study various notions of testing equivalence on actor expressions and configurations. The model we develop provides fairness. An important result is that the three forms of equivalence, namely, convex, must, and may equivalences, collapse to two in the presence of fairness. We further develop methods for proving laws of equivalence and provide example proofs to illustrate our methodology.
Type Inference with Polymorphic Recursion
 Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1991
"... The DamasMilner Calculus is the typed Acalculus underlying the type system for ML and several other strongly typed polymorphic functional languages such as Mirandal and Haskell. Mycroft has extended its problematic monomorphic typing rule for recursive definitions with a polymorphic typing rule. H ..."
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Cited by 135 (0 self)
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The DamasMilner Calculus is the typed Acalculus underlying the type system for ML and several other strongly typed polymorphic functional languages such as Mirandal and Haskell. Mycroft has extended its problematic monomorphic typing rule for recursive definitions with a polymorphic typing rule. He proved the resulting type system, which we call the MilnerMycroft Calculus, sound with respect to Milner’s semantics, and showed that it preserves the principal typing property of the DamasMilner Calculus. The extension is of practical significance in typed logic programming languages and, more generally, in any language with (mutually) recursive definitions. In this paper we show that the type inference problem for the MilnerMycroft Calculus is logspace equivalent to semiunification, the problem of solving subsumption inequations between firstorder terms. This result has been proved independently by Kfoury et al. In connection with the recently established undecidability of semiunification this implies that typability in the MilnerMycroft Calculus is undecidable. We present some reasons why type inference with polymorphic recursion appears to be practical despite its undecidability. This also sheds some light on the observed practicality of ML
On the Expressive Power of Programming Languages
 Science of Computer Programming
, 1990
"... The literature on programming languages contains an abundance of informal claims on the relative expressive power of programming languages, but there is no framework for formalizing such statements nor for deriving interesting consequences. As a first step in this direction, we develop a formal noti ..."
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Cited by 131 (4 self)
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The literature on programming languages contains an abundance of informal claims on the relative expressive power of programming languages, but there is no framework for formalizing such statements nor for deriving interesting consequences. As a first step in this direction, we develop a formal notion of expressiveness and investigate its properties. To validate the theory, we analyze some widely held beliefs about the expressive power of several extensions of functional languages. Based on these results, we believe that our system correctly captures many of the informal ideas on expressiveness, and that it constitutes a foundation for further research in this direction. 1 Comparing Programming Languages The literature on programming languages contains an abundance of informal claims on the expressive power of programming languages. Arguments in these contexts typically assert the expressibility or nonexpressibility of programming constructs relative to a language. Unfortunately, pro...
Polymorphic Type, Region and Effect Inference
, 1991
"... We present a new static system that reconstructs the types, regions and effects of expressions in an implicitly typed functional language that supports imperative operations on reference values. Just as types structurally abstract collections of concrete values, regions represent sets of possibly a ..."
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Cited by 120 (6 self)
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We present a new static system that reconstructs the types, regions and effects of expressions in an implicitly typed functional language that supports imperative operations on reference values. Just as types structurally abstract collections of concrete values, regions represent sets of possibly aliased reference values and effects represent approximations of the imperative behavior on regions. We introduce a static semantics for inferring types, regions and effects and prove that it is consistent with respect to the dynamic semantics of the language. We present a reconstruction algorithm that computes the types and effects of expressions and assigns regions to reference values. We prove the correctness of the reconstruction algorithm with respect to the static semantics. Finally, we discuss potential applications of our system to automatic stack allocation and parallel code generation.
The Discoveries of Continuations
, 1993
"... We give a brief account of the discoveries of continuations and related concepts by, A. Van Wijngaarden , A. W. Mazurkiewicz , F. L. Morris , C. P. Wadsworth , J. H. Morris , M. J. Fischer , and S. K. Abdali. ..."
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Cited by 110 (2 self)
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We give a brief account of the discoveries of continuations and related concepts by, A. Van Wijngaarden , A. W. Mazurkiewicz , F. L. Morris , C. P. Wadsworth , J. H. Morris , M. J. Fischer , and S. K. Abdali.
Algebraic Reconstruction of Types and Effects
, 1991
"... We present the first algorithm for reconstructing the types and effects of expressions in the presence of first class procedures in a polymorphic typed language. Effects are static descriptions of the dynamic behavior of expressions. Just as a type describes what an expression computes, an effect de ..."
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Cited by 109 (6 self)
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We present the first algorithm for reconstructing the types and effects of expressions in the presence of first class procedures in a polymorphic typed language. Effects are static descriptions of the dynamic behavior of expressions. Just as a type describes what an expression computes, an effect describes how an expression computes. Types are more complicated to reconstruct in the presence of effects because the algebra of effects induces complex constraints on both effects and types. In this paper we show how to perform reconstruction in the presence of such constraints with a new algorithm called algebraic reconstruction, prove that it is sound and complete, and discuss its practical import. This research was supported by DARPA under ONR Contract N0001489J1988. 1
Putting Type Annotations to Work
, 1996
"... We study an extension of the HindleyMilner system with explicit type scheme annotations and type declarations. The system can express polymorphic function arguments, userdefined data types with abstract components, and structure types with polymorphic fields. More generally, all programs of the po ..."
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Cited by 94 (1 self)
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We study an extension of the HindleyMilner system with explicit type scheme annotations and type declarations. The system can express polymorphic function arguments, userdefined data types with abstract components, and structure types with polymorphic fields. More generally, all programs of the polymorphic lambda calculus can be encoded by a translation between typing derivations. We show that type reconstruction in this system can be reduced to the decidable problem of firstorder unification under a mixed prefix.
Stack Inspection: Theory and Variants
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 2001
"... Stack inspection is a security mechanism implemented in runtimes such as the JVM and the CLR to accommodate components with diverse levels of trust. Although stack inspection enables the finegrained expression of access control policies, it has rather a complex and subtle semantics. We present a ..."
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Cited by 90 (4 self)
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Stack inspection is a security mechanism implemented in runtimes such as the JVM and the CLR to accommodate components with diverse levels of trust. Although stack inspection enables the finegrained expression of access control policies, it has rather a complex and subtle semantics. We present a formal semantics and an equational theory to explain how stack inspection a#ects program behaviour and code optimisations. We discuss the security properties enforced by stack inspection, and also consider variants with stronger, simpler properties.