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16
Observability of 3D Motion
 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER VISION
, 2000
"... This paper examines the inherent difficulties in observing 3D rigid motion from image sequences. It does so without considering a particular estimator. Instead, it presents a statistical analysis of all the possible computational models which can be used for estimating 3D motion from an image sequen ..."
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Cited by 21 (13 self)
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This paper examines the inherent difficulties in observing 3D rigid motion from image sequences. It does so without considering a particular estimator. Instead, it presents a statistical analysis of all the possible computational models which can be used for estimating 3D motion from an image sequence. These computational models are classified according to the mathematical constraints that they employ and the characteristics of the imaging sensor (restricted field of view and full field of view). Regarding the mathematical constraints, there exist two principles relating a sequence of images taken by a moving camera. One is the "epipolar constraint," applied to motion fields, and the other the "positive depth" constraint, applied to normal flow fields. 3D motion estimation amounts to optimizing these constraints over the image. A statistical modeling of these constraints leads to functions which are studied with regard to their topographic structure, specifically as regards the errors ...
On The Geometry Of Visual Correspondence
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1994
"... Image displacement fieldsoptical flow fields, stereo disparity fields, normal flow fieldsdue to rigid motion possess a global geometric structure which is independent of the scene in view. Motion vectors of certain lengths and directions are constrained to lie on the imaging surface at particu ..."
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Cited by 19 (12 self)
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Image displacement fieldsoptical flow fields, stereo disparity fields, normal flow fieldsdue to rigid motion possess a global geometric structure which is independent of the scene in view. Motion vectors of certain lengths and directions are constrained to lie on the imaging surface at particular loci whose location and form depends solely on the 3D motion parameters. If optical flow fields or stereo disparity fields are considered, then equal vectors are shown to lie on conic sections. Similarly, for normal motion fields, equal vectors lie within regions whose boundaries also constitute conics. By studying various properties of these curves and regions and their relationships, a characterization of the structure of rigid motion fields is given. The goal of this paper is to introduce a concept underlying the global structure of image displacement fields. This concept gives rise to various constraints that could form the basis of algorithms for the recovery of visual information f...
Aloimonos, Ambiguity in structure from motion: Sphere versus plane
 Internat. J. Comput. Vision
, 1998
"... Abstract. If 3D rigid motion can be correctly estimated from image sequences, the structure of the scene can be correctly derived using the equations for image formation. However, an error in the estimation of 3D motion will result in the computation of a distorted version of the scene structure. Of ..."
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Cited by 19 (6 self)
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Abstract. If 3D rigid motion can be correctly estimated from image sequences, the structure of the scene can be correctly derived using the equations for image formation. However, an error in the estimation of 3D motion will result in the computation of a distorted version of the scene structure. Of computational interest are these regions in space where the distortions are such that the depths become negative, because in order for the scene to be visible it has to lie in front of the image, and thus the corresponding depth estimates have to be positive. The stability analysis for the structure from motion problem presented in this paper investigates the optimal relationship between the errors in the estimated translational and rotational parameters of a rigid motion that results in the estimation of a minimum number of negative depth values. The input used is the value of the flow along some direction, which is more general than optic flow or correspondence. For a planar retina it is shown that the optimal configuration is achieved when the projections of the translational and rotational errors on the image plane are perpendicular. Furthermore, the projection of the actual and the estimated translation lie on a line through the center. For a spherical retina, given a rotational error, the optimal translation is the correct one; given a translational error, the optimal rotational error depends both in direction and value on the actual and estimated translation as well as the scene in view. The proofs, besides illuminating the confounding of translation and rotation in structure from motion, have an important application to ecological optics. The same analysis provides a computational explanation of why it is
Eyes from Eyes: New Cameras for Structure from Motion
 In IEEE Workshop on Omnidirectional Vision 2002
, 2002
"... We investigate the relationship between camera design and the problem of recovering the motion and structure of a scene from video data. The visual information that could possibly be obtained is described by the plenoptic function. A camera can be viewed as a device that captures a subset of this fu ..."
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Cited by 14 (6 self)
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We investigate the relationship between camera design and the problem of recovering the motion and structure of a scene from video data. The visual information that could possibly be obtained is described by the plenoptic function. A camera can be viewed as a device that captures a subset of this function, that is, it measures some of the light rays in some part of the space. The information contained in the subset determines how difficult it is to solve subsequent interpretation processes. By examining the differential structure of the time varying plenoptic function we relate different known and new camera models to the spatiotemporal structure of the observed scene. This allows us to define a hierarchy of camera designs, where the order is determined by the stability and complexity of the computations necessary to estimate structure and motion. At the low end of this hierarchy is the standard planar pinhole camera for which the structure from motion problem is nonlinear and illposed. At the high end is a new camera, which we call the full field of view polydioptric camera, for which the problem is linear and stable. In between are multipleview cameras with large fields of view which we have built, as well as catadioptric panoramic sensors and other omnidirectional cameras. We develop design suggestions for the polydioptric camera, and based upon this new design we propose a linear algorithm for egomotion estimation, which in essence combines differential motion estimation with differential stereo.
The Ouchi illusion as an artifact of biased flow estimation
, 2000
"... A pattern by Ouchi has the surprising property that small motions can cause illusory relative motion between the inset and background regions. The effect can be attained with small retinal motions or a slight jiggling of the paper and is robust over large changes in the patterns, frequencies and bou ..."
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Cited by 13 (8 self)
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A pattern by Ouchi has the surprising property that small motions can cause illusory relative motion between the inset and background regions. The effect can be attained with small retinal motions or a slight jiggling of the paper and is robust over large changes in the patterns, frequencies and boundary shapes. In this paper, we explain that the cause of the illusion lies in the statistical difficulty of integrating local onedimensional motion signals into twodimensional image velocity measurements. The estimation of image velocity generally is biased, and for the particular spatial gradient distributions of the Ouchi pattern the bias is highly pronounced, giving rise to a large difference in the velocity estimates in the two regions. The computational model introduced to describe the statistical estimation of image velocity also accounts for the findings of psychophysical studies with variations of the Ouchi pattern and for various findings on the perception of moving plaids. The insight gained from this computational study challenges the current models used to explain biological vision systems and to construct robotic vision systems. Considering the statistical difficulties in image velocity estimation in conjunction with the problem of discontinuity detection in motion fields suggests that theoretically the process of optical flow computations should not be carried out in isolation but in conjunction with the higher level processes of 3D motion estimation, segmentation and shape computation.
Visual Space Distortion
 Biological Cybernetics
, 1997
"... We are surrounded by surfaces that we perceive by visual means. Understanding the basic principles behind this perceptual process is a central theme in visual psychology, psychophysics and computational vision. In many of the computational models employed in the past, it has been assumed that a metr ..."
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Cited by 12 (11 self)
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We are surrounded by surfaces that we perceive by visual means. Understanding the basic principles behind this perceptual process is a central theme in visual psychology, psychophysics and computational vision. In many of the computational models employed in the past, it has been assumed that a metric representation of physical space can be derived by visual means. Psychophysical experiments, as well as computational considerations, can convince us that the perception of space and shape has a much more complicated nature, and that only a distorted version of actual, physical space can be computed. This paper develops a computational geometric model that explains why such distortion might take place. The basic idea is that, both in stereo and motion, we perceive the world from multiple views. Given the rigid transformation between the views and the properties of the image correspondence, the depth of the scene can be obtained. Even a slight error in the rigid transformation parameters c...
Statistical Biases in Optic Flow
 In Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
, 1999
"... The computation of optical flow from image derivatives is biased in regions of non uniform gradient distributions. A leastsquares or total least squares approach to computing optic flow from image derivatives even in regions of consistent flow can lead to a systematic bias dependent upon the direct ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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The computation of optical flow from image derivatives is biased in regions of non uniform gradient distributions. A leastsquares or total least squares approach to computing optic flow from image derivatives even in regions of consistent flow can lead to a systematic bias dependent upon the direction of the optic flow, the distribution of the gradient directions, and the distribution of the image noise. The bias a consistent underestimation of length and a directional error. Similar results hold for various methods of computing optical flow in the spatiotemporal frequency domain. The predicted bias in the optical flow is consistent with psychophysical evidence of human judgment of the velocity of moving plaids, and provides an explanation of the Ouchi illusion. Correction of the bias requires accurate estimates of the noise distribution; the failure of the human visual system to make these corrections illustrates both the difficulty of the task and the feasibility of using this disto...
What is Computed by Structure from Motion Algorithms?
 In Proc. European Conference on Computer Vision
, 1997
"... In the literature we find two classes of algorithms which, on the basis of two views of a scene, recover the rigid transformation between the views and subsequently the structure of the scene. The first class contains techniques which require knowledge of the correspondence or the motion field betwe ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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In the literature we find two classes of algorithms which, on the basis of two views of a scene, recover the rigid transformation between the views and subsequently the structure of the scene. The first class contains techniques which require knowledge of the correspondence or the motion field between the images and are based on the epipolar constraint. The second class contains socalled direct algorithms which require knowledge about the value of the flow in one direction only and are based on the positive depth constraint. Algorithms in the first class achieve the solution by minimizing a function representing deviation from the epipolar constraint while direct algorithms find the 3D motion that, when used to estimate depth, produces a minimum number of negative depth values. This paper presents a stability analysis of both classes of algorithms. The formulation is such that it allows comparison of the robustness of algorithms in the two classes as well as within each class. Specifi...
A Hierarchy of Cameras for 3D Photography
 In 1st Symposium on 3D Processing, Visualization, and Processing (3DPVT
, 2002
"... We investigate the relationship between camera design and 3D photography, by examining the influence of camera design on the estimation of the motion and structure of a scene from video data. To compute the 3D structure of a scene accurately from a moving vision sensor, we need to be able to estimat ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We investigate the relationship between camera design and 3D photography, by examining the influence of camera design on the estimation of the motion and structure of a scene from video data. To compute the 3D structure of a scene accurately from a moving vision sensor, we need to be able to estimate the motion of the sensor from the recorded image information, a problem that has been wellstudied. By relating the differential structure of the time varying plenoptic function to different known and new camera designs, we can establish a hierarchy of cameras based upon the stability and complexity of the computations necessary to estimate structure and motion. At the low end of this hierarchy is the standard planar pinhole camera for which the structure from motion problem is nonlinear and illposed. At the high end is a camera, which we call the full field of view polydioptric camera, for which the problem is linear and stable. In between are multiple view cameras with a large field of view which we have built, as well as omnidirectional sensors. We develop design suggestions for a polydioptric camera especially suited for 3D photography, and we propose a linear algorithm utilizing this camera design to recover the structure of the scene.
Polydioptric Cameras: New Eyes for Structure from Motion
, 2002
"... We examine the influence of camera design on the estimation of the motion and structure of a scene from video data. Every camera captures a subset of the light rays passing though some volume in space. By relating the differential structure of the time varying space of light rays to different known ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We examine the influence of camera design on the estimation of the motion and structure of a scene from video data. Every camera captures a subset of the light rays passing though some volume in space. By relating the differential structure of the time varying space of light rays to different known and new camera designs, we can establish a hierarchy of cameras. This hierarchy is based upon the stability and complexity of the computations necessary to estimate structure and motion. At the low end of this hierarchy is the standard planar pinhole camera for which the structure from motion problem is nonlinear and illposed. At the high end is a camera, which we call the full field of view polydioptric camera, for which the problem is linear and stable. We develop design suggestions for the polydioptric camera, and based upon this new design we propose a linear algorithm for structurefrommotion estimation, which combines differential motion estimation with differential stereo.