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**1 - 3**of**3**### Methods and Approaches for RF Circuit Simulation and Electromagnetic Modelling

"... RF circuits and systems are gaining importance because we are moving further into a society where information is very important and should be available any time and anywhere. In this paper we give an overview of RF circuit simulation with an emphasis on noise simulation which is important functional ..."

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RF circuits and systems are gaining importance because we are moving further into a society where information is very important and should be available any time and anywhere. In this paper we give an overview of RF circuit simulation with an emphasis on noise simulation which is important functionality for RF designers. Due to the high frequency signals, the standard circuit formulation using Kirchho and lumped elements is not sucient anymore to accurately predict the behaviour of a design and Maxwell's equations should be used. We give several approximations of Maxwell's equations and scenarios how the results can be incorporated in RF circuit simulation.

### Periodic AC and Periodic Noise in

"... This overview highlights the main steps to come to Periodic AC and Periodic Noise simulation in RF simulation. A distinction is made between forced oscillators and free oscillators. Noisy elements contribute in various ways to the overall noise eect. When dealing with free oscillators, phase noi ..."

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This overview highlights the main steps to come to Periodic AC and Periodic Noise simulation in RF simulation. A distinction is made between forced oscillators and free oscillators. Noisy elements contribute in various ways to the overall noise eect. When dealing with free oscillators, phase noise is most important. In the case of white and coloured stochastic noise sources, the spectrum of the (stationary) autocorrelation of the phase shifted function can be determined by summing the eects of all independent noise sources. In general one has to take the non-linear way, in which the phase shift function changes with time, into account.

### Periodic AC and Periodic Noise in RF Simulation for Electronic Circuit Design

, 2003

"... Abstract. This overview highlights the main steps to come to Periodic AC and Periodic Noise simulation in RF simulation. A distinction is made between forced oscillators and free oscillators. Noisy elements contribute in various ways to the overall noise effect. When dealing with free oscillators, p ..."

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Abstract. This overview highlights the main steps to come to Periodic AC and Periodic Noise simulation in RF simulation. A distinction is made between forced oscillators and free oscillators. Noisy elements contribute in various ways to the overall noise effect. When dealing with free oscillators, phase noise is most important. In the case of white and coloured stochastic noise sources, the spectrum of the (stationary) autocorrelation of the phase shifted function can be determined by summing the effects of all independent noise sources. In general one has to take the non-linear way, in which the phase shift function changes with time, into account. 1. RF simulation methods The newly developed simulation methods for radio frequency (RF) problems all somehow exploit the 'sparsity ' of the signal spectra. The basic method is that of determining the (time) periodic steady-state (PSS) solution of a circuit. Concep-tually this can be seen as a generalisation of the well-known DC operating point (the steady-state or Direct Current solution): for baseband circuits the spectral