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19
Logics for unranked trees: an overview
 Logical Methods in Computer Science 2, Issue 3, Paper 2
, 2006
"... Vol. 2 (3:2) 2006, pp. 1–31 www.lmcsonline.org ..."
On the theory of structural subtyping
, 2003
"... We show that the firstorder theory of structural subtyping of nonrecursive types is decidable. Let Σ be a language consisting of function symbols (representing type constructors) and C a decidable structure in the relational language L containing a binary relation ≤. C represents primitive types; ..."
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Cited by 18 (8 self)
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We show that the firstorder theory of structural subtyping of nonrecursive types is decidable. Let Σ be a language consisting of function symbols (representing type constructors) and C a decidable structure in the relational language L containing a binary relation ≤. C represents primitive types; ≤ represents a subtype ordering. We introduce the notion of Σtermpower of C, which generalizes the structure arising in structural subtyping. The domain of the Σtermpower of C is the set of Σterms over the set of elements of C. We show that the decidability of the firstorder theory of C implies the decidability of the firstorder theory of the Σtermpower of C. This result implies the decidability of the firstorder theory of structural subtyping of nonrecursive types.
Ordering Constraints over Feature Trees
, 1999
"... Feature trees are the formal basis for algorithms manipulating record like structures in constraint programming, computational linguistics and in concrete applications like software configuration management. Feature trees model records, and constraints over feature trees yield extensible and modular ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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Feature trees are the formal basis for algorithms manipulating record like structures in constraint programming, computational linguistics and in concrete applications like software configuration management. Feature trees model records, and constraints over feature trees yield extensible and modular record descriptions. We introduce the constraint system FT of ordering constraints interpreted over feature trees. Under the view that feature trees represent symbolic information, the relation corresponds to the information ordering ("carries less information than"). We present two algorithms in cubic time, one for the satisfiability problem and one for the entailment problem of FT . We show that FT has the independence property. We are thus able to handle negative conjuncts via entailment and obtain a cubic algorithm that decides the satisfiability of conjunctions of positive and negated ordering constraints over feature trees. Furthermore, we reduce the satisfiability problem of Dorre's weak subsumption constraints to the satisfiability problem of FT and improve the complexity bound for solving weak subsumption constraints from O(n^5) to O(n³).
Ordering Constraints over Feature Trees Expressed in Secondorder Monadic Logic
 Information and Computation
, 1998
"... The language FT of ordering constraints over feature trees has been introduced as an extension of the system FT of equality constraints over feature trees. While the firstorder theory of FT is well understood, only few decidability results are known for the firstorder theory of FT . We introduc ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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The language FT of ordering constraints over feature trees has been introduced as an extension of the system FT of equality constraints over feature trees. While the firstorder theory of FT is well understood, only few decidability results are known for the firstorder theory of FT . We introduce a new method for proving the decidability of fragments of the firstorder theory of FT . This method is based on reduction to second order monadic logic that is decidable according to Rabin's famous tree theorem. The method applies to any fragment of the firstorder theory of FT for which one can change the model towards sufficiently labeled feature trees  a class of trees that we introduce. As we show, the first ordertheory of ordering constraints over sufficiently labeled feature trees is equivalent to secondorder monadic logic (S2S for infinite and WS2S for finite feature trees). We apply our method for proving that entailment of FT with existential quantifiers j 1 j=9x 1 : : :9x n j 2 is decidable. Previous results were restricted to entailment without existential quantifiers which can be solved in cubic time. Meanwhile, entailment with existential quantifiers has been shown PSPACEcomplete (for finite and infinite feature trees respectively).
NonStructural Subtype Entailment in Automata Theory
, 2003
"... Decidability of nonstructural subtype entailment is a longstanding open problem in programming language theory. In this paper, we apply automata theoretic methods to characterize the problem equivalently by using regular expressions and word equations. This characterization induces new results on ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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Decidability of nonstructural subtype entailment is a longstanding open problem in programming language theory. In this paper, we apply automata theoretic methods to characterize the problem equivalently by using regular expressions and word equations. This characterization induces new results on nonstructural subtype entailment, constitutes a promising starting point for further investigations on decidability, and explains for the first time why the problem is so difficult. The difficulty is caused by implicit word equations that we make explicit.
Tree Extension Algebras: Logics, Automata, and Query Languages
 In Proceedings of the 17th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS
, 2002
"... We study relations on trees defined by firstorder constraints over a vocabulary that includes the tree extension relation T T , holding if and only if every branch of T extends to a branch of T , unary nodetests, and a binary relation checking if the domains of two trees are equal. We show ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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We study relations on trees defined by firstorder constraints over a vocabulary that includes the tree extension relation T T , holding if and only if every branch of T extends to a branch of T , unary nodetests, and a binary relation checking if the domains of two trees are equal. We show that from such a formula one can generate a tree automaton that accepts the set of tuples of trees defined by the formula, and conversely that every automaton over treetuples is captured by such a formula. We look at the fragment with only extension inequalities and leaf tests, and show that it corresponds to a new class of automata on tree tuples, which is strictly weaker then general treetuple automata. We use the automata representations to show separation and expressibility results for formulae in the logic. We then turn to relational calculi over the logic defined here: that is, from constraints we extend to queries that have secondorder parameters for a finite set of tree tuples. We give normal forms for queries, and use these to get bounds on the data complexity of query evaluation, showing that while general query evaluation is unbounded within the polynomial hierarchy, generic query evaluation has very low complexity, giving strong bounds on the expressive power of relational calculi with tree extension constraints. We also give normal forms for safe queries in the calculus.
Logical definability and query languages over ranked and unranked trees
 ACM TOCL
"... We study relations on trees defined by firstorder constraints over a vocabulary that includes the tree extension relation T ≺ T ′ , holding if and only if every branch of T extends to a branch of T ′, unary nodetests, and a binary relation checking if the domains of two trees are equal. We conside ..."
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Cited by 7 (4 self)
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We study relations on trees defined by firstorder constraints over a vocabulary that includes the tree extension relation T ≺ T ′ , holding if and only if every branch of T extends to a branch of T ′, unary nodetests, and a binary relation checking if the domains of two trees are equal. We consider both ranked and unranked trees. These are trees with and without a restriction on the number of children of nodes. We adopt the modeltheoretic approach to tree relations and study relations definable over the structure consisting of the set of all trees and the above predicates. We relate definability of sets and relations of trees to computability by tree automata. We show that some natural restrictions correspond to familiar logics in the more classical setting, where every tree is a structure over a fixed vocabulary, and to logics studied in the context of XML pattern languages. We then look at relational calculi over collections of trees, and obtain quantifierrestriction results that give us bounds on the expressive power and complexity. As unrestricted relational calculi can express problems complete for each level of the polynomial hierarchy, we look at their restrictions, corresponding to the restricted logics over the family of all unranked trees, and find several calculi with low (NC 1) data complexity, while still expressing properties important for database and
Entailment of NonStructural Subtype Constraints
 In Asian Computing Science Conference, number 1742 in LNCS
, 1999
"... Entailment of subtype constraints was introduced for constraint simplification in subtype inference systems. Designing an efficient algorithm for subtype entailment turned out to be surprisingly difficult. The situation was clarified by Rehof and Henglein who proved entailment of structural subty ..."
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Cited by 5 (4 self)
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Entailment of subtype constraints was introduced for constraint simplification in subtype inference systems. Designing an efficient algorithm for subtype entailment turned out to be surprisingly difficult. The situation was clarified by Rehof and Henglein who proved entailment of structural subtype constraints to be coNPcomplete for simple types and PSPACEcomplete for recursive types. For entailment of nonstructural subtype constraints of both simple and recursive types they proved PSPACEhardness and conjectured PSPACEcompleteness but failed in finding a complete algorithm. In this paper, we investigate the source of complications and isolate a natural subproblem of nonstructural subtype entailment that we prove PSPACEcomplete. We conjecture (but this is left open) that the presented approach can be extended to the general case.
Logical Definability and Query Languages over Unranked Trees
 Proceedings of the 18th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS
, 2003
"... Unranked trees, that is, trees with no restriction on the number of children of nodes, have recently attracted much attention, primarily as an abstraction of XML documents. In this paper, we study logical definability over unranked trees, as well as collections of unranked trees, that can be viewed ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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Unranked trees, that is, trees with no restriction on the number of children of nodes, have recently attracted much attention, primarily as an abstraction of XML documents. In this paper, we study logical definability over unranked trees, as well as collections of unranked trees, that can be viewed as databases of XML documents. The traditional approach to definability is to view each tree as a structure of a fixed vocabulary, and study the expressive power of various logics on trees. A different approach, based on model theory, considers a structure whose universe is the set of all trees, and studies definable sets and relations; this approach extends smoothly to the setting of definability over collections of trees. We study the latter, modeltheoretic approach. We find sets of operations on unranked trees that define regular tree languages, and show that some natural restrictions correspond to logics studied in the context of XML pattern languages. We then look at relational calculi over collections of unranked trees, and obtain quantifierrestriction results that give us bounds on the expressive power and complexity. As unrestricted relational calculi can express problems complete for each level of the polynomial hierarchy, we look at their restrictions, corresponding to the restricted logics over the family of all unranked trees, and find several calculi with low (NC ) data complexity, that can express important XML properties like DTD validation and XPath evaluation.