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Algebra of logic programming
 International Conference on Logic Programming
, 1999
"... At present, the field of declarative programming is split into two main areas based on different formalisms; namely, functional programming, which is based on lambda calculus, and logic programming, which is based on firstorder logic. There are currently several language proposals for integrating th ..."
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At present, the field of declarative programming is split into two main areas based on different formalisms; namely, functional programming, which is based on lambda calculus, and logic programming, which is based on firstorder logic. There are currently several language proposals for integrating the expressiveness of these two models of computation. In this thesis we work towards an integration of the methodology from the two research areas. To this end, we propose an algebraic approach to reasoning about logic programs, corresponding to the approach taken in functional programming. In the first half of the thesis we develop and discuss a framework which forms the basis for our algebraic analysis and transformation methods. The framework is based on an embedding of definite logic programs into lazy functional programs in Haskell, such that both the declarative and the operational semantics of the logic programs are preserved. In spite of its conciseness and apparent simplicity, the embedding proves to have many interesting properties and it gives rise to an algebraic semantics of logic programming. It also allows us to reason about logic programs in a simple calculational style, using rewriting and the algebraic laws of combinators. In the embedding, the meaning of a logic program arises compositionally from the meaning of its constituent subprograms and the combinators that connect them. In the second half of the thesis we explore applications of the embedding to the algebraic transformation of logic programs. A series of examples covers simple program derivations, where our techniques simplify some of the current techniques. Another set of examples explores applications of the more advanced program development techniques from the Algebra of Programming by Bird and de Moor [18], where we expand the techniques currently available for logic program derivation and optimisation. To my parents, Sandor and Erzsebet. And the end of all our exploring Will be to arrive where we started And know the place for the first time.
Embedding prolog in haskell
 Department of Computer Science, University of Utrecht
, 1999
"... The distinctive merit of the declarative reading of logic programs is the validity ofallthelaws of reasoning supplied by the predicate calculus with equality. Surprisingly many of these laws are still valid for the procedural reading � they can therefore be used safely for algebraic manipulation, pr ..."
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The distinctive merit of the declarative reading of logic programs is the validity ofallthelaws of reasoning supplied by the predicate calculus with equality. Surprisingly many of these laws are still valid for the procedural reading � they can therefore be used safely for algebraic manipulation, program transformation and optimisation of executable logic programs. This paper lists a number of common laws, and proves their validity for the standard (depth rst search) procedural reading of Prolog. They also hold for alternative search strategies, e.g. breadth rst search. Our proofs of the laws are based on the standard algebra of functional programming, after the strategies have been given a rather simple implementation in Haskell. 1
Characterisations of Termination in Logic Programming
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2001
"... The procedural interpretation of logic programs and queries is parametric to the selection rule, i.e. the rule that determines which atom is selected in each resolution step. Termination of logic programs and queries depends critically on the selection rule. In this survey, we present a unified ..."
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The procedural interpretation of logic programs and queries is parametric to the selection rule, i.e. the rule that determines which atom is selected in each resolution step. Termination of logic programs and queries depends critically on the selection rule. In this survey, we present a unified view and comparison of seven notions of universal termination considered in the literature, and the corresponding classes of programs. For each class, we focus on a su#cient, and in most cases even necessary, declarative characterisation for determining that a program is in that class. By unifying di#erent formalisms and making appropriate assumptions, we are able to establish a formal hierarchy between the di#erent classes and their respective declarative characterisations.
Some Notes on Logic Programming with a Relational Machine (Extended Abstract)
 Relational Methods in Computer Science, Technical Report Nr. 199803
, 1998
"... James Lipton Dept. of Mathematics Wesleyan University Emily Chapman Dept. of Mathematics Wesleyan University Abstract We study the use of relation calculi for compilation and execution of Horn Clause programs with an extended notion of input and output. We consider various other extensions to the Pr ..."
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James Lipton Dept. of Mathematics Wesleyan University Emily Chapman Dept. of Mathematics Wesleyan University Abstract We study the use of relation calculi for compilation and execution of Horn Clause programs with an extended notion of input and output. We consider various other extensions to the Prolog core.
An Exercise in Polytypic Program Derivation: repmin
, 1996
"... A program derivation is said to be polytypic if some of its parameters are data types. The repmin problem is to replace all elements of a tree of numbers by the minimum element, making only a single pass over the original tree. Here we present a polytypic derivation for that problem. The derivation ..."
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A program derivation is said to be polytypic if some of its parameters are data types. The repmin problem is to replace all elements of a tree of numbers by the minimum element, making only a single pass over the original tree. Here we present a polytypic derivation for that problem. The derivation has an unusual feature: when interpreted in the category of relations, the resulting program is the wellknown cyclic logic program, and when interpreted in the category of functions, it is the wellknown higherorder functional solution. 1 Motivation Suppose I were to show you a derivation of a shortest path algorithm, and my whole presentation was in terms of numbers, addition and minimum. Undoubtedly some of you would get up and point out that by abstracting over the operations and recording their algebraic properties, I could have derived a whole class of algorithms instead of one particular program. Indeed, such abstraction over operations is now commonly accepted as one of the hallmar...
Functional Reading of Logic Programs
"... We propose an embedding of logic programming into lazy functional programming in which each predicate in a Prolog program becomes a Haskell function, in such a way that both the declarative and the procedural reading of the Prolog predicate are preserved. The embedding computes by means of operation ..."
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We propose an embedding of logic programming into lazy functional programming in which each predicate in a Prolog program becomes a Haskell function, in such a way that both the declarative and the procedural reading of the Prolog predicate are preserved. The embedding computes by means of operations on lazy lists. The state of each step in computation is passed on as a stream of answer substitutions, and all the logic operators of Prolog are implemented by explicit Haskell operators on these streams. The search strategy can be changed by altering the basic types of the embedding and the implementation of these operators. This model results in a perspicuous semantics for logic programs, and serves as a good example of modularisation in functional programming.