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The Ant System: Optimization by a colony of cooperating agents
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICSPART B
, 1996
"... An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computational paradigm, which we call Ant System. We propose it as a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. The main characteristics of this model are positive feedback, distributed computation ..."
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Cited by 802 (47 self)
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An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computational paradigm, which we call Ant System. We propose it as a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. The main characteristics of this model are positive feedback, distributed computation, and the use of a constructive greedy heuristic. Positive feedback accounts for rapid discovery of good solutions, distributed computation avoids premature convergence, and the greedy heuristic helps find acceptable solutions in the early stages of the search process. We apply the proposed methodology to the classical Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), and report simulation results. We also discuss parameter selection and the early setups of the model, and compare it with tabu search and simulated annealing using TSP. To demonstrate the robustness of the approach, we show how the Ant System (AS) can be applied to other optimization problems like the asymmetric traveling salesman, the quadrat...
QAPLIB  A Quadratic Assignment Problem Library
, 1996
"... This report, the data and also most of the best feasible solutions are available via World Wide Web. The URLs of the QAPLIB Home Page are http://www.opt.math.tugraz.ac.at/qaplib/ ..."
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Cited by 163 (6 self)
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This report, the data and also most of the best feasible solutions are available via World Wide Web. The URLs of the QAPLIB Home Page are http://www.opt.math.tugraz.ac.at/qaplib/
The Quadratic Assignment Problem: A Survey and Recent Developments
 In Proceedings of the DIMACS Workshop on Quadratic Assignment Problems, volume 16 of DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1994
"... . Quadratic Assignment Problems model many applications in diverse areas such as operations research, parallel and distributed computing, and combinatorial data analysis. In this paper we survey some of the most important techniques, applications, and methods regarding the quadratic assignment probl ..."
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Cited by 91 (16 self)
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. Quadratic Assignment Problems model many applications in diverse areas such as operations research, parallel and distributed computing, and combinatorial data analysis. In this paper we survey some of the most important techniques, applications, and methods regarding the quadratic assignment problem. We focus our attention on recent developments. 1. Introduction Given a set N = f1; 2; : : : ; ng and n \Theta n matrices F = (f ij ) and D = (d kl ), the quadratic assignment problem (QAP) can be stated as follows: min p2\Pi N n X i=1 n X j=1 f ij d p(i)p(j) + n X i=1 c ip(i) ; where \Pi N is the set of all permutations of N . One of the major applications of the QAP is in location theory where the matrix F = (f ij ) is the flow matrix, i.e. f ij is the flow of materials from facility i to facility j, and D = (d kl ) is the distance matrix, i.e. d kl represents the distance from location k to location l [62, 67, 137]. The cost of simultaneously assigning facility i to locat...
Fitness Landscape Analysis and Memetic Algorithms for the Quadratic Assignment Problem
, 1999
"... In this paper, a fitness landscape analysis for several instances of the quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is performed and the results are used to classify problem instances according to their hardness for local search heuristics and metaheuristics based on local search. The local properties of t ..."
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Cited by 62 (9 self)
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In this paper, a fitness landscape analysis for several instances of the quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is performed and the results are used to classify problem instances according to their hardness for local search heuristics and metaheuristics based on local search. The local properties of the tness landscape are studied by performing an autocorrelation analysis, while the global structure is investigated by employing a fitness distance correlation analysis. It is shown that epistasis, as expressed by the dominance of the flow and distance matrices of a QAP instance, the landscape ruggedness in terms of the correlation length of a landscape, and the correlation between fitness and distance of local optima in the landscape together are useful for predicting the performance of memetic algorithms  evolutionary algorithms incorporating local search  to a certain extent. Thus, based on these properties a favorable choice of recombination and/or mutation operators can be found.
Memetic Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization Problems: Fitness Landscapes and Effective Search Strategies
, 2001
"... ..."
MAXMIN Ant System and Local Search for Combinatorial Optimization Problems
, 1997
"... In this paper we present an extension of MAX MIN Ant System applying it to Traveling Salesman Problems and Quadratic Assignment Problems. The extension involves the use of a modified choice rule and a hybrid scheme allowing ants to improve their solution by local search. The computational results ..."
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Cited by 33 (7 self)
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In this paper we present an extension of MAX MIN Ant System applying it to Traveling Salesman Problems and Quadratic Assignment Problems. The extension involves the use of a modified choice rule and a hybrid scheme allowing ants to improve their solution by local search. The computational results show that this algorithm can be used to efficiently find near optimal solutions to hard combinatorial optimization problems and is one of the best methods for the solution of structured quadratic assignment problems. 1 Introduction Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a population based, cooperative search metaphor inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants. One of the basic ideas of ACO is to use the equivalent of the pheromone trail used by real ants as a medium for cooperation and communication among a colony of artificial ants. The seminal work on ACO is Ant System [8, 10] that was first proposed for solving the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). In Ant System, the ants are simple agent...
A Comparison of Memetic Algorithms, Tabu Search, and Ant Colonies for the Quadratic Assignment Problem
 Proc. Congress on Evolutionary Computation, IEEE
, 1999
"... A memetic algorithm (MA), i.e. an evolutionary algorithm making use of local search, for the quadratic assignment problem is presented. A new recombination operator for realizing the approach is described, and the behavior of the MA is investigated on a set of problem instances containing between 25 ..."
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Cited by 32 (4 self)
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A memetic algorithm (MA), i.e. an evolutionary algorithm making use of local search, for the quadratic assignment problem is presented. A new recombination operator for realizing the approach is described, and the behavior of the MA is investigated on a set of problem instances containing between 25 and 100 facilities/locations. The results indicate that the proposed MA is able to produce high quality solutions quickly. A comparison of the MA with some of the currently best alternative approaches  reactive tabu search, robust tabu search and the fast ant colony system  demonstrates that the MA outperforms its competitors on all studied problem instances of practical interest. 1 Introduction The problem of assigning a set of facilities (with given flows between them) to a set of locations (with given distances between them) in such a way that the sum of the product between flows and distances is minimized is known as the facilities location problem [1] or the quadratic assignment ...
Lower Bounds for the Quadratic Assignment Problem Based Upon a Dual Formulation
"... A new bounding procedure for the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) is described which extends the Hungarian method for the Linear Assignment Problem (LAP) to QAPs, operating on the four dimensional cost array of the QAP objective function. The QAP is iteratively transformed in a series of equivalen ..."
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Cited by 28 (7 self)
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A new bounding procedure for the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) is described which extends the Hungarian method for the Linear Assignment Problem (LAP) to QAPs, operating on the four dimensional cost array of the QAP objective function. The QAP is iteratively transformed in a series of equivalent QAPs leading to an increasing sequence of lower bounds for the original problem. To this end, two classes of operations which transform the four dimensional cost array are defined. These have the property that the values of the transformed objective function Z' are the corresponding values of the old objective function Z, shifted by some amount C. In the case that all entries of the transformed cost array are nonnegative, then C is a lower bound for the initial QAP. If, moreover, there exists a feasible solution U to the QAP, such that its value in the transformed problem is zero, then C is the optimal value of Z and U is an optimal solution for the original QAP. The transformations are iteratively applied until no significant increase in constant C as above is found, resulting in the so called Dual Procedure (DP). Several strategies are listed for appropriately determining C, or equivalently, transforming the cost array. The goal is the modification of the elements in the cost array so as to obtain new equivalent problems which bring the QAP closer to solution. In some cases the QAP is actually solved, though solution is not guaranteed. The close relationship between the DP and the Linear Programming formulation of Adams and Johnson is presented. The DP attempts to solve Adams and Johnsons CLP, a continuous relaxation of a linearization of the QAP. This explains why the DP produces bounds close to the optimum values for CLP calculated by Johnson in her dissertation and by...
Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures
 Handbook of Applied Optimization
, 2001
"... . GRASP (greedy randomized adaptive search procedure) is a metaheuristic for combinatorial optimization. GRASP usually is implemented as a multistart procedure, where each iteration is made up of a construction phase, where a randomized greedy solution is constructed, and a local search phase wh ..."
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Cited by 27 (4 self)
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. GRASP (greedy randomized adaptive search procedure) is a metaheuristic for combinatorial optimization. GRASP usually is implemented as a multistart procedure, where each iteration is made up of a construction phase, where a randomized greedy solution is constructed, and a local search phase which starts at the constructed solution and applies iterative improvement until a locally optimal solution is found. This chapter gives an overview of GRASP. Besides describing the basic building blocks of a GRASP, the chapter covers enhancements to the basic procedure, including reactive GRASP, hybrid GRASP, and intensification strategies. 1. Introduction Consider a combinatorial optimization problem, where one is given a discrete set X of solutions and an objective function f(x) : x # X # to be minimized and seeks a solution x # # X such that f(x # ) # f(x), for all x # X . Problems of this type are sometimes easy to solve, i.e. they can be solved in polynomial time, but mor...
Solving Large Quadratic Assignment Problems in Parallel.
 Computational Optimization and Applications
, 1994
"... . Quadratic Assignment problems are in practice among the most difficult to solve in the class of NPcomplete problems. The only successful approach hitherto has been BranchandBound based algorithms, but such algorithms are crucially dependent on good bound functions to limit the size of the space ..."
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Cited by 24 (6 self)
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. Quadratic Assignment problems are in practice among the most difficult to solve in the class of NPcomplete problems. The only successful approach hitherto has been BranchandBound based algorithms, but such algorithms are crucially dependent on good bound functions to limit the size of the space searched. Much work has been done to identify such functions for the QAP, but with limited success. Parallel processing has also been used in order to increase the size of problems solvable to optimality. The systems used have, however, often been systems with relatively few, but very powerful vector processors, and have hence not been ideally suited for computations essentially involving nonvectorizable computations on integers. In this paper we investigate the combination of one of the best bound functions for a Branchand Bound algorithm (the GilmoreLawler bound) and various testing, variable binding and recalculation of bounds between branchings when used in a parallel BranchandBo...