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Making data structures persistent
, 1989
"... This paper is a study of persistence in data structures. Ordinary data structures are ephemeral in the sense that a change to the structure destroys the old version, leaving only the new version available for use. In contrast, a persistent structure allows access to any version, old or new, at any t ..."
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Cited by 256 (5 self)
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This paper is a study of persistence in data structures. Ordinary data structures are ephemeral in the sense that a change to the structure destroys the old version, leaving only the new version available for use. In contrast, a persistent structure allows access to any version, old or new, at any time. We develop simple, systematic, and efftcient techniques for making linked data structures persistent. We use our techniques to devise persistent forms of binary search trees with logarithmic access, insertion, and deletion times and O (1) space bounds for insertion and deletion.
Fully persistent lists WITH CATENATION
, 1994
"... This paper considers the problem of represmrtirrg stacks with catenation so that any stack, old or new, is available for access or update operations. Th]s problem arises in the implementation of listbased and functional programming languages. A solution is proposed requiring constant time and spa ..."
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Cited by 22 (5 self)
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This paper considers the problem of represmrtirrg stacks with catenation so that any stack, old or new, is available for access or update operations. Th]s problem arises in the implementation of listbased and functional programming languages. A solution is proposed requiring constant time and space for each stack operation except catenation, which requmes O(log log k) time and space. Here k is the number of stack operations done before the
Purely Functional Representations of Catenable Sorted Lists.
 In Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 1996
"... The power of purely functional programming in the construction of data structures has received much attention, not only because functional languages have many desirable properties, but because structures built purely functionally are automatically fully persistent: any and all versions of a structur ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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The power of purely functional programming in the construction of data structures has received much attention, not only because functional languages have many desirable properties, but because structures built purely functionally are automatically fully persistent: any and all versions of a structure can coexist indefinitely. Recent results illustrate the surprising power of pure functionality. One such result was the development of a representation of doubleended queues with catenation that supports all operations, including catenation, in worstcase constant time [19].
Confluently Persistent Deques via DataStructural Bootstrapping
 J. of Algorithms
, 1993
"... We introduce datastructural bootstrapping, a technique to design data structures recursively, and use it to design confluently persistent deques. Our data structure requires O(log 3 k) worstcase time and space per deletion, where k is the total number of deque operations, and constant worstcase t ..."
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Cited by 15 (4 self)
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We introduce datastructural bootstrapping, a technique to design data structures recursively, and use it to design confluently persistent deques. Our data structure requires O(log 3 k) worstcase time and space per deletion, where k is the total number of deque operations, and constant worstcase time and space for other operations. Further, the data structure allows a purely functional implementation, with no side effects. This improves a previous result of Driscoll, Sleator, and Tarjan. 1 An extended abstract of this paper was presented at the 4th ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, 1993. 2 Supported by a Fannie and John Hertz Foundation fellowship, National Science Foundation Grant No. CCR8920505, and the Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science (DIMACS) under NSFSTC8809648. 3 Also affiliated with NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, NJ 08540. Research at Princeton University partially supported by the National Science Foundatio...
Purely Functional, RealTime Deques with Catenation
 Journal of the ACM
, 1999
"... We describe an efficient, purely functional implementation of deques with catenation. In addition to being an intriguing problem in its own right, finding a purely functional implementation of catenable deques is required to add certain sophisticated programming constructs to functional programming ..."
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Cited by 14 (2 self)
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We describe an efficient, purely functional implementation of deques with catenation. In addition to being an intriguing problem in its own right, finding a purely functional implementation of catenable deques is required to add certain sophisticated programming constructs to functional programming languages. Our solution has a worstcase running time of O(1) for each push, pop, inject, eject and catenation. The best previously known solution has an O(log k) time bound for the k deque operation. Our solution is not only faster but simpler. A key idea used in our result is an algorithmic technique related to the redundant digital representations used to avoid carry propagation in binary counting.
Persistent data structures
 IN HANDBOOK ON DATA STRUCTURES AND APPLICATIONS, CRC PRESS 2001, DINESH MEHTA AND SARTAJ SAHNI (EDITORS) BOROUJERDI, A., AND MORET, B.M.E., &QUOT;PERSISTENCY IN COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY,&QUOT; PROC. 7TH CANADIAN CONF. COMP. GEOMETRY, QUEBEC
, 1995
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Storage and Retrieval of Highly Repetitive Sequence Collections ∗
"... A repetitive sequence collection is a set of sequences which are small variations of each other. A prominent example are genome sequences of individuals of the same or close species, where the differences can be expressed by short lists of basic edit operations. Flexible and efficient data analysis ..."
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Cited by 11 (9 self)
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A repetitive sequence collection is a set of sequences which are small variations of each other. A prominent example are genome sequences of individuals of the same or close species, where the differences can be expressed by short lists of basic edit operations. Flexible and efficient data analysis on such a typically huge collection is plausible using suffix trees. However, the suffix tree occupies much space, which very soon inhibits inmemory analyses. Recent advances in fulltext indexing reduce the space of the suffix tree to, essentially, that of the compressed sequences, while retaining its functionality with only a polylogarithmic slowdown. However, the underlying compression model considers only the predictability of the next sequence symbol given the k previous ones, where k is a small integer. This is unable to capture longerterm repetitiveness. For example, r identical copies of an incompressible sequence will be incompressible under this model. We develop new static and dynamic fulltext indexes that are able of capturing the fact that a collection is highly repetitive, and require space basically proportional to the length of one typical sequence plus the total number of edit operations. The new indexes can be plugged into a recent dynamic fullycompressed suffix tree, achieving full functionality for sequence analysis, while retaining the reduced space and the polylogarithmic slowdown. Our experimental results confirm the practicality of our proposal.
Storage and Retrieval of Individual Genomes
"... Abstract. A repetitive sequence collection is one where portions of a base sequence of length n are repeated many times with small variations, forming a collection of total length N. Examples of such collections are version control data and genome sequences of individuals, where the differences can ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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Abstract. A repetitive sequence collection is one where portions of a base sequence of length n are repeated many times with small variations, forming a collection of total length N. Examples of such collections are version control data and genome sequences of individuals, where the differences can be expressed by lists of basic edit operations. Flexible and efficient data analysis on a such typically huge collection is plausible using suffix trees. However, suffix tree occupies O(N log N) bits, which very soon inhibits inmemory analyses. Recent advances in fulltext selfindexing reduce the space of suffix tree to O(N log σ) bits, where σ is the alphabet size. In practice, the space reduction is more than 10fold, for example on suffix tree of Human Genome. However, this reduction factor remains constant when more sequences are added to the collection. We develop a new family of selfindexes suited for the repetitive sequence collection setting. Their expected space requirement depends only on the length n of the base sequence and the number s of variations in its repeated copies. That is, the space reduction factor is no longer constant, but depends on N/n. We believe the structures developed in this work will provide a fundamental basis for storage and retrieval of individual genomes as they become available due to rapid progress in the sequencing technologies.
Transparent, Distributed, and Replicated Dynamic Provable Data Possession
, 2013
"... With the growing trend toward using outsourced storage, the problem of efficiently checking and proving data integrity needs more consideration. Starting with PDP and POR schemes in 2007, many cryptography and security researchers have addressed the problem. After the first solutions for static data ..."
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With the growing trend toward using outsourced storage, the problem of efficiently checking and proving data integrity needs more consideration. Starting with PDP and POR schemes in 2007, many cryptography and security researchers have addressed the problem. After the first solutions for static data, dynamic versions were developed (e.g., DPDP). Researchers also considered distributed versions of such schemes. Alas, in all such distributed schemes, the client needs to be aware of the structure of the cloud, and possibly preprocess the file accordingly, even though the security guarantees in the real world are not improved. We propose a distributed and replicated DPDP which is transparent from the client’s viewpoint. It allows for real scenarios where the cloud storage provider (CSP) may hide its internal structure from the client, flexibly manage its resources, while still providing provable service to theclient. TheCSPdecides onhow many andwhich serverswill storethedata. Sincetheload is distributed on multiple servers, we observe onetotwo orders of magnitude better performance in our tests, while availability and reliability are also improved via replication. In addition, we use persistent rankbased authenticated skip lists to create centralized and distributed variants of a dynamic version control system with optimal complexity. 1
Storage and Retrieval of Individual Genomes (Extended Abstract)
"... A repetitive sequence collection is one where portions of a base sequence of length n are repeated many times with small variations, forming a collection of total length N. Examples of such collections are version control data and genome sequences of individuals, where the differences can be express ..."
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A repetitive sequence collection is one where portions of a base sequence of length n are repeated many times with small variations, forming a collection of total length N. Examples of such collections are version control data and genome sequences of individuals, where the differences can be expressed by lists of basic edit operations. Flexible and efficient data analysis on a such typically huge collection is plausible using suffix trees. However, suffix tree occupies O(N log N) bits, which very soon inhibits inmemory analyses. Recent advances in fulltext selfindexing reduce the space of suffix tree to O(N log σ) bits, where σ is the alphabet size. In practice, the space reduction is more than 10fold for example on suffix tree of Human Genome. However, this reduction remains a constant factor when more sequences are added to the collection We develop a new selfindex suited for the repetitive sequence collection setting. Its expected space requirement depends only on the length n of the base sequence and the number s of variations in its repeated copies. That is, the space reduction is no longer constant, but depends on N/n. We believe the structure developed in this work will provide a fundamental basis for storage and retrieval of individual genomes as they become available due to rapid progress in the sequencing technologies. 1