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125
Shape Matching and Object Recognition Using Shape Contexts
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2001
"... We present a novel approach to measuring similarity between shapes and exploit it for object recognition. In our framework, the measurement of similarity is preceded by (1) solv ing for correspondences between points on the two shapes, (2) using the correspondences to estimate an aligning transform ..."
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Cited by 1792 (21 self)
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We present a novel approach to measuring similarity between shapes and exploit it for object recognition. In our framework, the measurement of similarity is preceded by (1) solv ing for correspondences between points on the two shapes, (2) using the correspondences to estimate an aligning transform. In order to solve the correspondence problem, we attach a descriptor, the shape context, to each point. The shape context at a reference point captures the distribution of the remaining points relative to it, thus offering a globally discriminative characterization. Corresponding points on two similar shapes will have similar shape con texts, enabling us to solve for correspondences as an optimal assignment problem. Given the point correspondences, we estimate the transformation that best aligns the two shapes; reg ularized thin plate splines provide a flexible class of transformation maps for this purpose. The dissimilarity between the two shapes is computed as a sum of matching errors between corresponding points, together with a term measuring the magnitude of the aligning trans form. We treat recognition in a nearestneighbor classification framework as the problem of finding the stored prototype shape that is maximally similar to that in the image. Results are presented for silhouettes, trademarks, handwritten digits and the COIL dataset.
Stochastic volatility: likelihood inference and comparison with ARCH models
 Review of Economic Studies
, 1998
"... In this paper, Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods are exploited to provide a unified, practical likelihoodbased framework for the analysis of stochastic volatility models. A highly effective method is developed that samples all the unobserved volatilities at once using an approximating offse ..."
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Cited by 585 (41 self)
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In this paper, Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods are exploited to provide a unified, practical likelihoodbased framework for the analysis of stochastic volatility models. A highly effective method is developed that samples all the unobserved volatilities at once using an approximating offset mixture model, followed by an importance reweighting procedure. This approach is compared with several alternative methods using real data. The paper also develops simulationbased methods for filtering, likelihood evaluation and model failure diagnostics. The issue of model choice using nonnested likelihood ratios and Bayes factors is also investigated. These methods are used to compare the fit of stochastic volatility and GARCH models. All the procedures are illustrated in detail. 1.
Spatstat: An R package for analyzing spatial point patterns
 Journal of Statistical Software
, 2005
"... spatstat is a package for analyzing spatial point pattern data. Its functionality includes exploratory data analysis, modelfitting, and simulation. It is designed to handle realistic datasets, including inhomogeneous point patterns, spatial sampling regions of arbitrary shape, extra covariate data, ..."
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Cited by 203 (4 self)
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spatstat is a package for analyzing spatial point pattern data. Its functionality includes exploratory data analysis, modelfitting, and simulation. It is designed to handle realistic datasets, including inhomogeneous point patterns, spatial sampling regions of arbitrary shape, extra covariate data, and ‘marks ’ attached to the points of the point pattern. A unique feature of spatstat is its generic algorithm for fitting point process models to point pattern data. The interface to this algorithm is a function ppm that is strongly analogous to lm and glm. This paper is a general description of spatstat and an introduction for new users.
Bayesian Analysis of Mixture Models with an Unknown Number of Components  an alternative to reversible jump methods
, 1998
"... Richardson and Green (1997) present a method of performing a Bayesian analysis of data from a finite mixture distribution with an unknown number of components. Their method is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, which makes use of the "reversible jump" methodology described by Gree ..."
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Cited by 114 (0 self)
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Richardson and Green (1997) present a method of performing a Bayesian analysis of data from a finite mixture distribution with an unknown number of components. Their method is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, which makes use of the "reversible jump" methodology described by Green (1995). We describe an alternative MCMC method which views the parameters of the model as a (marked) point process, extending methods suggested by Ripley (1977) to create a Markov birthdeath process with an appropriate stationary distribution. Our method is easy to implement, even in the case of data in more than one dimension, and we illustrate it on both univariate and bivariate data. Keywords: Bayesian analysis, Birthdeath process, Markov process, MCMC, Mixture model, Model Choice, Reversible Jump, Spatial point process 1 Introduction Finite mixture models are typically used to model data where each observation is assumed to have arisen from one of k groups, each group being suitably modelle...
Non and SemiParametric Estimation of Interaction in Inhomogeneous Point Patterns
, 2000
"... We develop methods for analysing the `interaction' or dependence between points in a spatial point pattern, when the pattern is spatially inhomogeneous. Completely nonparametric study of interactions is possible using an analogue of the Kfunction. Alternatively one may assume a semiparametr ..."
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Cited by 96 (19 self)
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We develop methods for analysing the `interaction' or dependence between points in a spatial point pattern, when the pattern is spatially inhomogeneous. Completely nonparametric study of interactions is possible using an analogue of the Kfunction. Alternatively one may assume a semiparametric model in which a (parametrically specified) homogeneous Markov point process is subjected to (nonparametric) inhomogeneous independent thinning. The effectiveness of these approaches is tested on datasets representing the positions of trees in forests.
Transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo
 in Highly Structured Stochastic Systems
, 2003
"... In the context of samplebased computation of Bayesian posterior distributions in complex stochastic systems, this chapter discusses some of the uses for a Markov chain with a prescribed invariant distribution whose support is a union of euclidean spaces of differing dimensions. This leads into a re ..."
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Cited by 91 (0 self)
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In the context of samplebased computation of Bayesian posterior distributions in complex stochastic systems, this chapter discusses some of the uses for a Markov chain with a prescribed invariant distribution whose support is a union of euclidean spaces of differing dimensions. This leads into a reformulation of the reversible jump MCMC framework for constructing such ‘transdimensional ’ Markov chains. This framework is compared to alternative approaches for the same task, including methods that involve separate sampling within different fixeddimension models. We consider some of the difficulties researchers have encountered with obtaining adequate performance with some of these methods, attributing some of these to misunderstandings, and offer tentative recommendations about algorithm choice for various classes of problem. The chapter concludes with a look towards desirable future developments.
Practical maximum pseudolikelihood for spatial point patterns
 Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics
, 2000
"... This paper describes a technique for computing approximate maximum pseudolikelihood estimates of the parameters of a spatial point process. The method is an extension of Berman & Turner’s (1992) device for maximizing the likelihoods of inhomogeneous spatial Poisson processes. For a very wide cla ..."
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Cited by 85 (9 self)
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This paper describes a technique for computing approximate maximum pseudolikelihood estimates of the parameters of a spatial point process. The method is an extension of Berman & Turner’s (1992) device for maximizing the likelihoods of inhomogeneous spatial Poisson processes. For a very wide class of spatial point process models the likelihood is intractable, while the pseudolikelihood is known explicitly, except for the computation of an integral over the sampling region. Approximation of this integral by a finite sum in a special way yields an approximate pseudolikelihood which is formally equivalent to the (weighted) likelihood of a loglinear model with Poisson responses. This can be maximized using standard statistical software for generalized linear or additive models, provided the conditional intensity of the process takes an ‘exponential family ’ form. Using this approach a wide variety of spatial point process models of Gibbs type can be fitted rapidly, incorporating spatial trends, interaction between points, dependence on spatial covariates, and mark information. Key words: areainteraction process; Berman–Turner device; Dirichlet tessellation; edge effects; generalized additive models; generalized linear models; Gibbs point processes; GLIM; hard core process; inhomogeneous point process; marked point processes; Markov spatial point processes; Ord’s process; pairwise interaction; profile pseudolikelihood; spatial clustering; soft core process; spatial trend; SPLUS; Strauss process; Widom–Rowlinson model. 1.
Log Gaussian Cox processes
"... Planar Cox processes directed by a log Gaussian intensity process are investigated in the univariate and multivariate cases. The appealing properties of such models are demonstrated theoretically as well as through data examples and simulations. In particular, the first, second and thirdorder prop ..."
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Cited by 66 (5 self)
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Planar Cox processes directed by a log Gaussian intensity process are investigated in the univariate and multivariate cases. The appealing properties of such models are demonstrated theoretically as well as through data examples and simulations. In particular, the first, second and thirdorder properties are studied and utilized in the statistical analysis of clustered point patterns. Also empirical Bayesian inference for the underlying intensity surface is considered.
Poisson/gamma random field models for spatial statistics
 BIOMETRIKA
, 1998
"... Doubly stochastic Bayesian hierarchical models are introduced to account for uncertainty and spatial variation in the underlying intensity measure for point process models. Inhomogeneous gamma process random fields and, more generally, Markov random fields with infinitely divisible distributions are ..."
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Cited by 66 (14 self)
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Doubly stochastic Bayesian hierarchical models are introduced to account for uncertainty and spatial variation in the underlying intensity measure for point process models. Inhomogeneous gamma process random fields and, more generally, Markov random fields with infinitely divisible distributions are used to construct positively autocorrelated intensity measures for spatial Poisson point processes; these in turn are used to model the number and location of individual events. A data augmentation scheme and Markov chain Monte Carlo numerical methods are employed to generate samples from Bayesian posterior and predictive distributions. The methods are developed in both continuous and discrete settings, and are applied to a problem in forest ecology.
Efficient construction of reversible jump markov chain monte carlo proposal distributions
 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology
"... Summary. The major implementational problem for reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo methods is that there is commonly no natural way to choose jump proposals since there is no Euclidean structure in the parameter space to guide our choice. We consider mechanisms for guiding the choice of propos ..."
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Cited by 63 (2 self)
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Summary. The major implementational problem for reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo methods is that there is commonly no natural way to choose jump proposals since there is no Euclidean structure in the parameter space to guide our choice. We consider mechanisms for guiding the choice of proposal. The first group of methods is based on an analysis of acceptance probabilities for jumps. Essentially, these methods involve a Taylor series expansion of the acceptance probability around certain canonical jumps and turn out to have close connections to Langevin algorithms.The second group of methods generalizes the reversible jump algorithm by using the socalled saturated space approach. These allow the chain to retain some degree of memory so that, when proposing to move from a smaller to a larger model, information is borrowed from the last time that the reverse move was performed. The main motivation for this paper is that, in complex problems, the probability that the Markov chain moves between such spaces may be prohibitively small, as the probability mass can be very thinly spread across the space. Therefore, finding reasonable jump proposals becomes extremely important. We illustrate the procedure by using several examples of reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo applications including the analysis of autoregressive time series, graphical Gaussian modelling and mixture modelling.