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216
Dynamic Logic
 Handbook of Philosophical Logic
, 1984
"... ed to be true under the valuation u iff there exists an a 2 N such that the formula x = y is true under the valuation u[x=a], where u[x=a] agrees with u everywhere except x, on which it takes the value a. This definition involves a metalogical operation that produces u[x=a] from u for all possibl ..."
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Cited by 825 (8 self)
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ed to be true under the valuation u iff there exists an a 2 N such that the formula x = y is true under the valuation u[x=a], where u[x=a] agrees with u everywhere except x, on which it takes the value a. This definition involves a metalogical operation that produces u[x=a] from u for all possible values a 2 N. This operation becomes explicit in DL in the form of the program x := ?, called a nondeterministic or wildcard assignment. This is a rather unconventional program, since it is not effective; however, it is quite useful as a descriptive tool. A more conventional way to obtain a square root of y, if it exists, would be the program x := 0 ; while x < y do x := x + 1: (1) In DL, such programs are firstclass objects on a par with formulas, complete with a collection of operators for forming compound programs inductively from a basis of primitive programs. To discuss the effect of the execution of a program on the truth of a formula ', DL uses a modal construct <>', which
A completeness theorem for Kleene algebras and the algebra of regular events
 Information and Computation
, 1994
"... We givea nitary axiomatization of the algebra of regular events involving only equations and equational implications. Unlike Salomaa's axiomatizations, the axiomatization given here is sound for all interpretations over Kleene algebras. 1 ..."
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Cited by 188 (23 self)
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We givea nitary axiomatization of the algebra of regular events involving only equations and equational implications. Unlike Salomaa's axiomatizations, the axiomatization given here is sound for all interpretations over Kleene algebras. 1
Kleene algebra with tests
 Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1997
"... Abstract. We investigate conditions under which a given Kleene algebra with tests is isomorphic to an algebra of binary relations. Two simple separation properties are identified that, along with starcontinuity, are sufficient for nonstandard relational representation. An algebraic condition is ide ..."
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Cited by 108 (23 self)
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Abstract. We investigate conditions under which a given Kleene algebra with tests is isomorphic to an algebra of binary relations. Two simple separation properties are identified that, along with starcontinuity, are sufficient for nonstandard relational representation. An algebraic condition is identified that is necessary and sufficient for the construction to produce a standard representation. 1
Rewriting of Regular Expressions and Regular Path Queries
, 2002
"... Recent work on semistructured data has revitalized the interest in path queries, i.e., queries that ask for all pairs of objects in the database that are connected by a path conforming to a certain specification, in particular to a regular expression. Also, in semistructured data, as well as in da ..."
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Cited by 86 (27 self)
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Recent work on semistructured data has revitalized the interest in path queries, i.e., queries that ask for all pairs of objects in the database that are connected by a path conforming to a certain specification, in particular to a regular expression. Also, in semistructured data, as well as in data integration, data warehousing, and query optimization, the problem of viewbased query rewriting is receiving much attention: Given a query and a collection of views, generate a new query which uses the views and provides the answer to the original one. In this paper we address the problem of viewbased query rewriting in the context of semistructured data. We present a method for computing the rewriting of a regular expression E in terms of other regular expressions. The method computes the exact rewriting (the one that defines the same regular language as E) if it exists, or the rewriting that defines the maximal language contained in the one defined by E, otherwise. We present a complexity analysis of both the problem and the method, showing that the latter is essentially optimal. Finally, we illustrate how to exploit the method for viewbased rewriting of regular path queries in semistructured data. The complexity results established for the rewriting of regular expressions apply also to the case of regular path queries.
Automata and coinduction (an exercise in coalgebra
 LNCS
, 1998
"... The classical theory of deterministic automata is presented in terms of the notions of homomorphism and bisimulation, which are the cornerstones of the theory of (universal) coalgebra. This leads to a transparent and uniform presentation of automata theory and yields some new insights, amongst which ..."
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Cited by 62 (16 self)
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The classical theory of deterministic automata is presented in terms of the notions of homomorphism and bisimulation, which are the cornerstones of the theory of (universal) coalgebra. This leads to a transparent and uniform presentation of automata theory and yields some new insights, amongst which coinduction proof methods for language equality and language inclusion. At the same time, the present treatment of automata theory may serve as an introduction to coalgebra.
Partial Derivatives of Regular Expressions and Finite Automata Constructions
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1995
"... . We introduce a notion of a partial derivative of a regular expression. It is a generalization to the nondeterministic case of the known notion of a derivative invented by Brzozowski. We give a constructive definition of partial derivatives, study their properties, and employ them to develop a new ..."
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Cited by 59 (0 self)
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. We introduce a notion of a partial derivative of a regular expression. It is a generalization to the nondeterministic case of the known notion of a derivative invented by Brzozowski. We give a constructive definition of partial derivatives, study their properties, and employ them to develop a new algorithm for turning regular expressions into relatively small NFA and to provide certain improvements to Brzozowski's algorithm constructing DFA. We report on a prototype implementation of our algorithm constructing NFA and present some examples. Introduction In 1964 Janusz Brzozowski introduced word derivatives of regular expressions and suggested an elegant algorithm turning a regular expression r into a deterministic finite automata (DFA); the main point of the algorithm is that the word derivatives of r serve as states of the resulting DFA [5]. In the following years derivatives were recognized as a quite useful and productive tool. Conway [8] uses derivatives to present various comp...
Action Logic and Pure Induction
 Logics in AI: European Workshop JELIA '90, LNCS 478
, 1991
"... In FloydHoare logic, programs are dynamic while assertions are static (hold at states). In action logic the two notions become one, with programs viewed as onthefly assertions whose truth is evaluated along intervals instead of at states. Action logic is an equational theory ACT conservatively ex ..."
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Cited by 51 (6 self)
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In FloydHoare logic, programs are dynamic while assertions are static (hold at states). In action logic the two notions become one, with programs viewed as onthefly assertions whose truth is evaluated along intervals instead of at states. Action logic is an equational theory ACT conservatively extending the equational theory REG of regular expressions with operations preimplication a!b (had a then b) and postimplication b/a (b ifever a). Unlike REG, ACT is finitely based, makes a reflexive transitive closure, and has an equivalent Hilbert system. The crucial axiom is that of pure induction, (a!a) = a!a. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCR8814921. 1 Introduction Many logics of action have been proposed, most of them in the past two decades. Here we define action logic, ACT, a new yet simple juxtaposition of old ideas, and show off some of its attractive aspects. The language of action logic is that of equational regular expressio...
Timed Regular Expressions
 Journal of the ACM
, 2001
"... In this paper we define timed regular expressions, a formalism for specifying discrete behaviors augmented with timing information, and prove that its expressive power is equivalent to the timed automata of Alur and Dill. This result is the timed analogue of Kleene Theorem and, similarly to that re ..."
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Cited by 48 (15 self)
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In this paper we define timed regular expressions, a formalism for specifying discrete behaviors augmented with timing information, and prove that its expressive power is equivalent to the timed automata of Alur and Dill. This result is the timed analogue of Kleene Theorem and, similarly to that result, the hard part in the proof is the translation from automata to expressions. This result is extended from finite to infinite (in the sense of B uchi) behaviors. In addition to these fundamental results, we give a clean algebraic framework for two commonlyaccepted formalism for timed behaviors, timeevent sequences and piecewiseconstant signals. 1
Algorithmic Game Semantics
 In Schichtenberg and Steinbruggen [16
, 2001
"... Introduction SAMSON ABRAMSKY (samson@comlab.ox.ac.uk) Oxford University Computing Laboratory 1. Introduction Game Semantics has emerged as a powerful paradigm for giving semantics to a variety of programming languages and logical systems. It has been used to construct the first syntaxindependen ..."
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Cited by 47 (3 self)
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Introduction SAMSON ABRAMSKY (samson@comlab.ox.ac.uk) Oxford University Computing Laboratory 1. Introduction Game Semantics has emerged as a powerful paradigm for giving semantics to a variety of programming languages and logical systems. It has been used to construct the first syntaxindependent fully abstract models for a spectrum of programming languages ranging from purely functional languages to languages with nonfunctional features such as control operators and locallyscoped references [4, 21, 5, 19, 2, 22, 17, 11]. A substantial survey of the state of the art of Game Semantics circa 1997 was given in a previous Marktoberdorf volume [6]. Our aim in this tutorial presentation is to give a first indication of how Game Semantics can be developed in a new, algorithmic direction, with a view to applications in computerassisted verification and program analysis. Some promising steps have already been taken in this
On Kleene Algebras and Closed Semirings
 of Lect. Notes in Comput. Sci
, 1990
"... Kleene algebras are an important class of algebraic structures that arise in diverse areas of computer science: program logic and semantics, relational algebra, automata theory, and the design and analysis of algorithms. The literature contains several inequivalent definitions of Kleene algebras and ..."
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Cited by 42 (7 self)
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Kleene algebras are an important class of algebraic structures that arise in diverse areas of computer science: program logic and semantics, relational algebra, automata theory, and the design and analysis of algorithms. The literature contains several inequivalent definitions of Kleene algebras and related algebraic structures [2, 14, 15, 5, 6, 1, 10, 7]. In this paper we establish some new relationships among these structures. Our main results are: ffl There is a Kleene algebra in the sense of [6] that is not *continuous. ffl The categories of *continuous Kleene algebras [5, 6], closed semirings [1, 10] and Salgebras [2] are strongly related by adjunctions. ffl The axioms of Kleene algebra in the sense of [6] are not complete for the universal Horn theory of the regular events. This refutes a conjecture of Conway [2, p. 103]. ffl Righthanded Kleene algebras are not necessarily lefthanded Kleene algebras. This verifies a weaker version of a conjecture of Pratt [15]. In Rov...