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490
Contextual Priming for Object Detection
 IJCV
, 2003
"... There is general consensus that context can be a rich source of information about an object's identity, location and scale. In fact, the structure of many realworld scenes is governed by strong configurational rules akin to those that apply to a single object. Here we introduce a simple framework f ..."
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Cited by 192 (19 self)
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There is general consensus that context can be a rich source of information about an object's identity, location and scale. In fact, the structure of many realworld scenes is governed by strong configurational rules akin to those that apply to a single object. Here we introduce a simple framework for modeling the relationship between context and object properties based on the correlation between the statistics of lowlevel features across the entire scene and the objects that it contains. The resulting scheme serves as an effective procedure for object priming, context driven focus of attention and automatic scaleselection on realworld scenes.
Face recognition by independent component analysis
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 2002
"... Abstract—A number of current face recognition algorithms use face representations found by unsupervised statistical methods. Typically these methods find a set of basis images and represent faces as a linear combination of those images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular example of such ..."
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Cited by 192 (4 self)
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Abstract—A number of current face recognition algorithms use face representations found by unsupervised statistical methods. Typically these methods find a set of basis images and represent faces as a linear combination of those images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular example of such methods. The basis images found by PCA depend only on pairwise relationships between pixels in the image database. In a task such as face recognition, in which important information may be contained in the highorder relationships among pixels, it seems reasonable to expect that better basis images may be found by methods sensitive to these highorder statistics. Independent component analysis (ICA), a generalization of PCA, is one such method. We used a version of ICA derived from the principle of optimal information transfer through sigmoidal neurons. ICA was performed on face images in the FERET database under two different architectures, one which treated the images as random variables and the pixels as outcomes, and a second which treated the pixels as random variables and the images as outcomes. The first architecture found spatially local basis images for the faces. The second architecture produced a factorial face code. Both ICA representations were superior to representations based on PCA for recognizing faces across days and changes in expression. A classifier that combined the two ICA representations gave the best performance. Index Terms—Eigenfaces, face recognition, independent component analysis (ICA), principal component analysis (PCA), unsupervised learning. I.
Gabor Feature Based Classification Using the Enhanced Fisher Linear Discriminant Model for Face Recognition
 IEEE Trans. Image Processing
, 2002
"... This paper introduces a novel GaborFisher Classifier (GFC) for face recognition. The GFC method, which is robust to changes in illumination and facial expression, applies the Enhanced Fisher linear discriminant Model (EFM) to an augmented Gabor feature vector derived from the Gabor wavelet represen ..."
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Cited by 169 (10 self)
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This paper introduces a novel GaborFisher Classifier (GFC) for face recognition. The GFC method, which is robust to changes in illumination and facial expression, applies the Enhanced Fisher linear discriminant Model (EFM) to an augmented Gabor feature vector derived from the Gabor wavelet representation of face images. The novelty of this paper comes from (i) the derivation of an augmented Gabor feature vector, whose dimensionality is further reduced using the EFM by considering both data compression and recognition (generalization) performance; (ii) the development of a GaborFisher classifier for multiclass problems; and (iii) extensive performance evaluation studies. In particular, we performed comparative studies of different similarity measures applied to various classifiers. We also performed comparative experimental studies of various face recognition schemes, including our novel GFC method, the Gabor wavelet method, the Eigenfaces method, the Fisherfaces method, the EFM method, the combination of Gabor and the Eigenfaces method, and the combination of Gabor and the Fisherfaces method. The feasibility of the new GFC method has been successfully tested on face recognition using 600 FERET frontal face images corresponding to 200 subjects, which were acquired under variable illumination and facial expressions. The novel GFC method achieves 100% accuracy on face recognition using only 62 features.
Prior Learning and Gibbs ReactionDiffusion
, 1997
"... This article addresses two important themes in early visual computation: rst it presents a novel theory for learning the universal statistics of natural images { a prior model for typical cluttered scenes of the world { from a set of natural images, second it proposes a general framework of designi ..."
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Cited by 150 (18 self)
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This article addresses two important themes in early visual computation: rst it presents a novel theory for learning the universal statistics of natural images { a prior model for typical cluttered scenes of the world { from a set of natural images, second it proposes a general framework of designing reactiondiusion equations for image processing. We start by studying the statistics of natural images including the scale invariant properties, then generic prior models were learned to duplicate the observed statistics, based on the minimax entropy theory studied in two previous papers. The resulting Gibbs distributions have potentials of the form U(I; ; S) = P K I)(x; y)) with S = fF g being a set of lters and = f the potential functions. The learned Gibbs distributions con rm and improve the form of existing prior models such as lineprocess, but in contrast to all previous models, inverted potentials (i.e. (x) decreasing as a function of jxj) were found to be necessary. We nd that the partial dierential equations given by gradient descent on U(I; ; S) are essentially reactiondiusion equations, where the usual energy terms produce anisotropic diusion while the inverted energy terms produce reaction associated with pattern formation, enhancing preferred image features. We illustrate how these models can be used for texture pattern rendering, denoising, image enhancement and clutter removal by careful choice of both prior and data models of this type, incorporating the appropriate features. Song Chun Zhu is now with the Computer Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, and David Mumford is with the Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. This work started when the authors were at ...
Using the Forest to See the Trees: A Graphical Model Relating Features, Objects, and Scenes
, 2003
"... Standard approaches to object detection focus on local patches of the image, and try to classify them as background or not. We propose to use the scene context (image as a whole) as an extra source of (global) information, to help resolve local ambiguities. We present a conditional random field ..."
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Cited by 144 (12 self)
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Standard approaches to object detection focus on local patches of the image, and try to classify them as background or not. We propose to use the scene context (image as a whole) as an extra source of (global) information, to help resolve local ambiguities. We present a conditional random field for jointly solving the tasks of object detection and scene classification.
Non Linear Neurons in the Low Noise Limit: A Factorial Code Maximizes Information Transfer
, 1994
"... We investigate the consequences of maximizing information transfer in a simple neural network (one input layer, one output layer), focussing on the case of non linear transfer functions. We assume that both receptive fields (synaptic efficacies) and transfer functions can be adapted to the environm ..."
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Cited by 140 (18 self)
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We investigate the consequences of maximizing information transfer in a simple neural network (one input layer, one output layer), focussing on the case of non linear transfer functions. We assume that both receptive fields (synaptic efficacies) and transfer functions can be adapted to the environment. The main result is that, for bounded and invertible transfer functions, in the case of a vanishing additive output noise, and no input noise, maximization of information (Linsker'sinfomax principle) leads to a factorial code  hence to the same solution as required by the redundancy reduction principle of Barlow. We show also that this result is valid for linear, more generally unbounded, transfer functions, provided optimization is performed under an additive constraint, that is which can be written as a sum of terms, each one being specific to one output neuron. Finally we study the effect of a non zero input noise. We find that, at first order in the input noise, assumed to be small ...
Statistical Models for Images: Compression, Restoration and Synthesis
 In 31st Asilomar Conf on Signals, Systems and Computers
, 1997
"... this paper, we examine the problem of decomposing digitized images, through linear and/or nonlinear transformations, into statistically independent components. The classical approach to such a problem is Principal Components Analysis (PCA), also known as the KarhunenLoeve (KL) or Hotelling transfor ..."
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Cited by 138 (33 self)
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this paper, we examine the problem of decomposing digitized images, through linear and/or nonlinear transformations, into statistically independent components. The classical approach to such a problem is Principal Components Analysis (PCA), also known as the KarhunenLoeve (KL) or Hotelling transform. This is a linear transform that removes secondorder dependencies between input pixels. The most wellknown description of image statistics is that their power spectra take the form of a power law [e.g., 20, 11, 24]. Coupled with a constraint of translationinvariance, this suggests that the Fourier transform is an appropriate PCA representation. Fourier and related representations are widely used in image processing applications.
Bivariate Shrinkage Functions for WaveletBased Denoising Exploiting Interscale Dependency
, 2002
"... Most simple nonlinear thresholding rules for waveletbased denoising assume that the wavelet coefficients are independent. However, wavelet coefficients of natural images have significant dependencies. In this paper, we will only consider the dependencies between the coefficients and their parents i ..."
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Cited by 138 (4 self)
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Most simple nonlinear thresholding rules for waveletbased denoising assume that the wavelet coefficients are independent. However, wavelet coefficients of natural images have significant dependencies. In this paper, we will only consider the dependencies between the coefficients and their parents in detail. For this purpose, new nonGaussian bivariate distributions are proposed, and corresponding nonlinear threshold functions (shrinkage functions) are derived from the models using Bayesian estimation theory. The new shrinkage functions do not assume the independence of wavelet coefficients. We will show three image denoising examples in order to show the performance of these new bivariate shrinkage rules. In the second example, a simple subbanddependent datadriven image denoising system is described and compared with effective datadriven techniques in the literature, namely VisuShrink, SureShrink, BayesShrink, and hidden Markov models. In the third example, the same idea is applied to the dualtree complex wavelet coefficients.
Probabilistic Tracking in a Metric Space
 in ICCV
, 2001
"... A new, exemplarbased, probabilistic paradigm for visual tracking is presented. Probabilistic mechanisms are attractive because they handle fusion of information, especially temporal fusion, in a principled manner. Exemplars are selected representatives of raw training data, used here to represent p ..."
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Cited by 133 (2 self)
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A new, exemplarbased, probabilistic paradigm for visual tracking is presented. Probabilistic mechanisms are attractive because they handle fusion of information, especially temporal fusion, in a principled manner. Exemplars are selected representatives of raw training data, used here to represent probabilistic mixture distributions of object configurations. Their use avoids tedious handconstruction of object models and problems with changes of topology. Using exemplars in place of a parameterized model poses several challenges, addressed here with what we call the "Metric Mixture" (M # ) approach. The M # model has several valuable properties. Principally, it provides alternatives to standard learning algorithms by allowing the use of metrics that are not embedded in a vector space. Secondly, it uses a noise model that is learned from training data. Lastly, it eliminates any need for an assumption of probabilistic pixelwise independence. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the M # model in two domains: tracking walking people using chamfer distances on binary edge images and tracking mouth movements by means of a shuffle distance. 1