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On the Observable Properties of Higher Order Functions that Dynamically Create Local Names (preliminary report)
 IN MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, PROC. 18TH INT. SYMP
, 1993
"... The research reported in this paper is concerned with the problem of reasoning about properties of higher order functions involving state. It is motivated by the desire to identify what, if any, are the difficulties created purely by locality of state, independent of other properties such as sideef ..."
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Cited by 119 (13 self)
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The research reported in this paper is concerned with the problem of reasoning about properties of higher order functions involving state. It is motivated by the desire to identify what, if any, are the difficulties created purely by locality of state, independent of other properties such as sideeffects, exceptional termination and nontermination due to recursion. We consider a simple language (equivalent to a fragment of Standard ML) of typed, higher order functions that can dynamically create fresh names. Names are created with local scope, can be tested for equality and can be passed around via function application, but that is all. we demonstrate
Breeding hybrid strategies: Optimal behaviour for oligopolists
 Journal of Evolutionary Economics
, 1992
"... Abstract. Oligopolistic pricing decisions in which the choice variable is not dichotomous as in the simple prisoner's dilemma but continuous have been modeled as a generalized prisoner's dilemma (GPD) by Fader and Hauser, who sought, in the two MIT Computer Strategy Tournaments, to obtain an effec ..."
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Cited by 32 (9 self)
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Abstract. Oligopolistic pricing decisions in which the choice variable is not dichotomous as in the simple prisoner's dilemma but continuous have been modeled as a generalized prisoner's dilemma (GPD) by Fader and Hauser, who sought, in the two MIT Computer Strategy Tournaments, to obtain an effective generalization of Rapoport's Tit for Tat for the threeperson repeated game. Holland's genetic algorithm and Axelrod's representation of contingent strategies provide a means of generating new strategies in the computer, through machine learning, without outside submissions. The paper discusses how findings from twoperson tournaments can be extended to the GPD, in particular how the author's winning strategy in the Second MIT Competitive Strategy Tournament could be bettered. The paper provides insight into how oligopolistic pricing competitors can successfully compete, and underlines the importance of "niche " strategies, successful against a particular environment of competitors. Bootstrapping, or breeding strategies against their peers, provides a means of
Capacity Dynamics and Endogenous Asymmetries in Firm Size
 RAND JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS
, 2002
"... Empirical evidence suggests that there are substantial and persistent differences in the sizes of firms in most industries. We propose a dynamic model of capacity accumulation that explains the observed facts. In our model, firms accumulate capacity over time and compete repeatedly in the product ma ..."
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Cited by 32 (9 self)
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Empirical evidence suggests that there are substantial and persistent differences in the sizes of firms in most industries. We propose a dynamic model of capacity accumulation that explains the observed facts. In our model, firms accumulate capacity over time and compete repeatedly in the product market. We assume that capacity is lumpy and that investment and depreciation are subject to idiosyncratic shocks. We highlight the mode of product market competition and the extent of investment reversibility as key determinants of the size distribution of firms in an industry. In particular, if firms compete in prices and the rate of depreciation is large, then the industry moves towards an outcome with one dominant firm and one small firm. Industry dynamics in this case resemble a rather brutal preemption race.
Asymmetric Contests with General technologies
"... Keywords J.E.L. Class Notes Address Download November 2002 We investigate the Nash equilibria of asymmetric, winnertakeall, imperfectly discriminating contests, focusing on existence, uniqueness and rent dissipation. When the contest success function is determined by a production function ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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Keywords J.E.L. Class Notes Address Download November 2002 We investigate the Nash equilibria of asymmetric, winnertakeall, imperfectly discriminating contests, focusing on existence, uniqueness and rent dissipation. When the contest success function is determined by a production function with decreasing returns for each contestant, equilibria are unique. If marginal product is also bounded, limiting total expenditure is equal to the value of the prize in large contests even if contestants differ. Partial dissipation can occur only when infinite marginal products are permitted. Our analysis relies heavily on the use of 'share functions' and we discuss their theory and application. Increasing returns typically introduces multiple equilibria and requires an extension of share functions to correspondences. We describe the appropriate theory and apply it to the characterisation of all equilibria of contests employing the asymmetric generalisation of a widelyused symmetric contest success function.
A Typetheoretic Study on Partial Continuations
 Theoretical Computer Science: Exploring New Frontiers of Theoretical Informatics, volume 1872 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2000
"... . Partial continuations are control operators in functional programming such that a functionlike object is abstracted from a part of the rest of computation, rather than the whole rest of computation. Several dierent formulations of partial continuations have been proposed by Felleisen, Danvy&F ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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. Partial continuations are control operators in functional programming such that a functionlike object is abstracted from a part of the rest of computation, rather than the whole rest of computation. Several dierent formulations of partial continuations have been proposed by Felleisen, Danvy&Filinski, Hieb et al, and others, but as far as we know, no one ever studied logic for partial continuations, nor proposed a typed calculus of partial continuations which corresponds to a logical system through the CurryHoward isomorphism. This paper gives a simple typetheoretic formulation of a form of partial continuations (which we call delimited continuations), and study its properties. Our calculus does reect the intended operational semantics, and enjoys nice properties such as subject reduction and conuence. By restricting the type of delimiters to be atomic, we obtain the normal form property. We also show a few examples. 1 Introduction The mechanism of rstclass cont...
Dynamics Pricing: A Learning Approach
 Mathematical and Computational Models for Congestion Charging
, 2006
"... We present an optimization approach for jointly learning the demand as a function of price, and dynamically setting prices of products in an oligopoly environment in order to maximize expected revenue. The models we consider do not assume that the demand as a function of price is known in advance, b ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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We present an optimization approach for jointly learning the demand as a function of price, and dynamically setting prices of products in an oligopoly environment in order to maximize expected revenue. The models we consider do not assume that the demand as a function of price is known in advance, but rather assume parametric families of demand functions that are learned over time. We first consider the noncompetitive case and present dynamic programming algorithms of increasing computational intensity with incomplete state information for jointly estimating the demand and setting prices as time evolves. Our computational results suggest that dynamic programming based methods outperform myopic policies often significantly. We then extend our analysis in a competitive environment with two firms. We introduce a more sophisticated model of demand learning, in which the price elasticities are slowly varying functions of time, and allows for increased flexibility in the modeling of the demand. We propose methods based on optimization for jointly estimating the Firmâ€™s own demand, its competitorâ€™s demand, and setting prices. In preliminary computational work, we found that optimization based pricing methods offer increased expected revenue for a firm independently of the policy the competitor firm is following. 2 1
Towards a Theory of Reflective Programming Languages
 In Informal Proc. of the Third Workshop on Reflection and Metalevel Architectures in ObjectOriented Programming, OOPSLA'93
, 1993
"... This paper attempts to develop a better theoretical understanding of reflective systems. We begin by a developing a reflective extension of the v calculus and define a simple operational semantics for it based on the infinite tower model described in [10]. We then develop an equational logic from t ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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This paper attempts to develop a better theoretical understanding of reflective systems. We begin by a developing a reflective extension of the v calculus and define a simple operational semantics for it based on the infinite tower model described in [10]. We then develop an equational logic from this semantics. The resulting logic is shown to be weak because of reflective properties. We establish properties about this logic and show that it corresponds to the operational semantics. 1 Introduction Reflection was introduced by Smith [10] as a framework for language extension. He modeled this framework as an infinite tower of interpreterseach interpreter being just a program interpreted by the interpreter above itwith the user's program running at the lowest level. To be a little more explicit, the user program runs at level 0 by an interpreter, which is a program at level 1. This program in turn is interpreted by an identical program at level 2 and so on. Carrying this chain to ...
Sound Rules for Parallel Evaluation of a Functional Language with callcc
, 1993
"... Observationally equivalent programs are programs which are indistinguishable in all contexts, as far as their termination property is concerned. In this paper, we present rules preserving observational equivalence, for the parallel evaluation of programs using call/cc. These rules allow the capture ..."
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Cited by 5 (4 self)
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Observationally equivalent programs are programs which are indistinguishable in all contexts, as far as their termination property is concerned. In this paper, we present rules preserving observational equivalence, for the parallel evaluation of programs using call/cc. These rules allow the capture of continuations in any applicative context and they prevent from aborting the whole computation when a continuation is applied in the extent of the call/cc by which it was reied. As a consequence, these results prove that one can design a functional language with rstclass continuations which has transparent constructs for parallelism. 1 Introduction Some programming languages, like Scheme and Standard ML of New Jersey, provide a control operator call/cc which gives the programmer the possibility to reify the current continuation as a rstclass object. When such a reied continuation is applied to a value v, the current computation is aborted and the execution resumes at the point wher...