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Probability distributions with summary graph structure
, 2008
"... A joint density of many variables may satisfy a possibly large set of independence statements, called its independence structure. Often the structure of interest is representable by a graph that consists of nodes representing variables and of edges that couple node pairs. We consider joint densities ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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A joint density of many variables may satisfy a possibly large set of independence statements, called its independence structure. Often the structure of interest is representable by a graph that consists of nodes representing variables and of edges that couple node pairs. We consider joint densities of this type, generated by a stepwise process in which all variables and dependences of interest are included. Otherwise, there are no constraints on the type of variables or on the form of the generating conditional densities. For the joint density that then results after marginalising and conditioning, we derive what we name the summary graph. It is seen to capture precisely the independence structure implied by the generating process, it identifies dependences which remain undistorted due to direct or indirect confounding and it alerts to such, possibly severe distortions in other parametrizations. Summary graphs preserve their form after marginalising and conditioning and they include multivariate regression chain graphs as special cases. We use operators for matrix representations of graphs to derive matrix results and translate these into special types of path. 1. Introduction. Graphical Markov
Sequences of regressions and their dependences
"... ABSTRACT: In this paper, we study sequences of regressions in joint or single responses given a set of context variables, where a dependence structure of interest is captured by a regression graph. These graphs have nodes representing random variables and three types of edge. Their set of missing ed ..."
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we study sequences of regressions in joint or single responses given a set of context variables, where a dependence structure of interest is captured by a regression graph. These graphs have nodes representing random variables and three types of edge. Their set of missing edges defines the independence structure of the graph provided two properties are used that are not common to all probability distributions, named the intersection and the composition property. We derive the additionally needed properties for tracing the effects of single active paths and for excluding any canceling of effects due to several paths connecting the same pair of nodes. For this, we use the notion of a generating process for the joint distribution and derive new properties of an edge matrix calculus for transforming graphs. One key is the Mmatrix property of each regularized square edge matrix, others are the proposed notions of traceable regressions and of singleton transitivity.
Casecontrol studies for rare diseases: improved estimation of
"... Abstract. To capture the dependencesof a diseaseon severalrisk factors, a challengeis to combinemodelbasedestimation with evidencebasedarguments. Standardcasecontrol methods allow estimation of the dependences of a rare disease on several regressors via logistic regressions. For casecontrol stud ..."
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Abstract. To capture the dependencesof a diseaseon severalrisk factors, a challengeis to combinemodelbasedestimation with evidencebasedarguments. Standardcasecontrol methods allow estimation of the dependences of a rare disease on several regressors via logistic regressions. For casecontrol studies, the sampling design leads to samples from two different populations and for the set of regressors in every logistic regression, these samples are then mixed and taken as given observations. But, it is the differences in independence structures of regressors for cases and for controls that can improve logistic regression estimates and guide us to the important feature dependences that are specific to the diseased. A casecontrol study on laryngeal cancer is used as illustration.