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58
Hierarchical edge bundles: Visualization of adjacency relations in hierarchical data
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 2006
"... Abstract—A compound graph is a frequently encountered type of data set. Relations are given between items, and a hierarchy is defined on the items as well. We present a new method for visualizing such compound graphs. Our approach is based on visually bundling the adjacency edges, i.e., nonhierarch ..."
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Cited by 144 (9 self)
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Abstract—A compound graph is a frequently encountered type of data set. Relations are given between items, and a hierarchy is defined on the items as well. We present a new method for visualizing such compound graphs. Our approach is based on visually bundling the adjacency edges, i.e., nonhierarchical edges, together. We realize this as follows. We assume that the hierarchy is shown via a standard tree visualization method. Next, we bend each adjacency edge, modeled as a Bspline curve, toward the polyline defined by the path via the inclusion edges from one node to another. This hierarchical bundling reduces visual clutter and also visualizes implicit adjacency edges between parent nodes that are the result of explicit adjacency edges between their respective child nodes. Furthermore, hierarchical edge bundling is a generic method which can be used in conjunction with existing tree visualization techniques. We illustrate our technique by providing example visualizations and discuss the results based on an informal evaluation provided by potential users of such visualizations.
Graph drawing by stress majorization
 GRAPH DRAWING
, 2004
"... One of the most popular graph drawing methods is based of achieving graphtheoretic target ditsances. This method was used by Kamada and Kawai [15], who formulated it as an energy optimization problem. Their energy is known in the multidimensional scaling (MDS) community as the stress function. In th ..."
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Cited by 67 (11 self)
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One of the most popular graph drawing methods is based of achieving graphtheoretic target ditsances. This method was used by Kamada and Kawai [15], who formulated it as an energy optimization problem. Their energy is known in the multidimensional scaling (MDS) community as the stress function. In this work, we show how to draw graphs by stress majorization, adapting a technique known in the MDS community for more than two decades. It appears that majorization has advantages over the technique of Kamada and Kawai in running time and stability. We also present a few extensions to the basic energy model which can improve layout quality and computation speed in practice. Majorizationbased optimization is essential to these extensions.
ACE: A Fast Multiscale Eigenvector Computation for Drawing Huge Graphs
, 2002
"... We present an extremely fast graph drawing algorithm for very large graphs, which we term ACE (for Algebraic multigrid Computation of Eigenvectors). ACE finds an optimal drawing by minimizing a quadratic energy function due to Hall, using a novel algebraic multigrid technique. The algorithm exhibits ..."
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Cited by 62 (13 self)
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We present an extremely fast graph drawing algorithm for very large graphs, which we term ACE (for Algebraic multigrid Computation of Eigenvectors). ACE finds an optimal drawing by minimizing a quadratic energy function due to Hall, using a novel algebraic multigrid technique. The algorithm exhibits an improvement of something like two orders of magnitude over the fastest algorithms we are aware of; it draws graphs of a million nodes in less than a minute. Moreover, the algorithm can deal with more general entities, such as graphs with masses and negative weights (to be defined in the text), and it appears to be applicable outside of graph drawing too.
Network Visualization by Semantic Substrates
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
"... Abstract—Networks have remained a challenge for information visualization designers because of the complex issues of node and link layout coupled with the rich set of tasks that users present. This paper offers a strategy based on two principles: (1) layouts are based on userdefined semantic substr ..."
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Cited by 62 (8 self)
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Abstract—Networks have remained a challenge for information visualization designers because of the complex issues of node and link layout coupled with the rich set of tasks that users present. This paper offers a strategy based on two principles: (1) layouts are based on userdefined semantic substrates, which are nonoverlapping regions in which node placement is based on node attributes, (2) users interactively adjust sliders to control link visibility to limit clutter and thus ensure comprehensibility of source and destination. Scalability is further facilitated by user control of which nodes are visible. We illustrate our semantic substrates approach as implemented in NVSS 1.0 with legal precedent data for up to 1122 court cases in three regions with 7645 legal citations. Index Terms — Network visualization, semantic substrate, information visualization, graphical user interfaces. 1
Graph Drawing by HighDimensional Embedding
 In GD02, LNCS
, 2002
"... We present a novel approach to the aesthetic drawing of undirected graphs. The method has two phases: first embed the graph in a very high dimension and then project it into the 2D plane using PCA. Experiments we have carried out show the ability of the method to draw graphs of 10 nodes in few seco ..."
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Cited by 59 (10 self)
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We present a novel approach to the aesthetic drawing of undirected graphs. The method has two phases: first embed the graph in a very high dimension and then project it into the 2D plane using PCA. Experiments we have carried out show the ability of the method to draw graphs of 10 nodes in few seconds. The new method appears to have several advantages over classical methods, including a significantly better running time, a useful inherent capability to exhibit the graph in various dimensions, and an effective means for interactive exploration of large graphs.
An Energy Model for Visual Graph Clustering
 Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Graph Drawing (GD 2003), LNCS 2912
, 2003
"... We introduce an energy model whose minimum energy drawings reveal the clusters of the drawn graph. Here a cluster is a set of nodes with many internal edges and few edges to nodes outside the set. The drawings of the bestknown force and energy models do not clearly show clusters for graphs whose ..."
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Cited by 41 (4 self)
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We introduce an energy model whose minimum energy drawings reveal the clusters of the drawn graph. Here a cluster is a set of nodes with many internal edges and few edges to nodes outside the set. The drawings of the bestknown force and energy models do not clearly show clusters for graphs whose diameter is small relative to the number of nodes. We formally characterize the minimum energy drawings of our energy model. This characterization shows in what sense the drawings separate clusters, and how the distance of separated clusters to the other nodes can be interpreted.
ForceDirected Edge Bundling for Graph Visualization
, 2009
"... Graphs depicted as nodelink diagrams are widely used to show relationships between entities. However, nodelink diagrams comprised of a large number of nodes and edges often suffer from visual clutter. The use of edge bundling remedies this and reveals highlevel edge patterns. Previous methods requ ..."
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Cited by 37 (0 self)
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Graphs depicted as nodelink diagrams are widely used to show relationships between entities. However, nodelink diagrams comprised of a large number of nodes and edges often suffer from visual clutter. The use of edge bundling remedies this and reveals highlevel edge patterns. Previous methods require the graph to contain a hierarchy for this, or they construct a control mesh to guide the edge bundling process, which often results in bundles that show considerable variation in curvature along the overall bundle direction. We present a new edge bundling method that uses a selforganizing approach to bundling in which edges are modeled as flexible springs that can attract each other. In contrast to previous methods, no hierarchy is used and no control mesh. The resulting bundled graphs show significant clutter reduction and clearly visible highlevel edge patterns. Curvature variation is furthermore minimized, resulting in smooth bundles that are easy to follow. Finally, we present a rendering technique that can be used to emphasize the bundling.
A Multidimensional Approach to ForceDirected Layouts of Large Graphs
, 2000
"... Abstract. We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or thr ..."
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Cited by 36 (5 self)
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Abstract. We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or three dimensional subspace of E. Projecting highdimensional drawings onto two or three dimensions often results in drawings that are “smoother ” and more symmetric. Among the other notable features of our approach are the utilization of a maximal independent set filtration of the set of vertices of a graph, a fast energy function minimization strategy, efficient memory management, and an intelligent initial placement of vertices. Our implementation of the algorithm can draw graphs with tens of thousands of vertices using a negligible amount of memory in less than one minute on a midrange PC. 1
TopoLayout: Multilevel graph layout by topological features
 IEEE TRANS. VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS
, 2007
"... We describe TopoLayout, a featurebased,
multilevel algorithm that draws undirected graphs based on the topological features they contain. Topological features are detected recursively inside the graph, and their subgraphs are collapsed into single nodes, forming a graph hierarchy. Each feature is ..."
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Cited by 34 (5 self)
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We describe TopoLayout, a featurebased,
multilevel algorithm that draws undirected graphs based on the topological features they contain. Topological features are detected recursively inside the graph, and their subgraphs are collapsed into single nodes, forming a graph hierarchy. Each feature is drawn with an algorithm tuned for its topology. As would be expected from a featurebased approach, the runtime and visual quality of TopoLayout depends on the number and types of topological features present in the graph. We show experimental results comparing speed and visual quality for TopoLayout against four other multilevel algorithms on a variety of datasets with a range of connectivities and sizes. TopoLayout frequently improves the results in terms of speed and visual quality on these datasets.
GRIP: Graph dRawing with Intelligent Placement  Short System Demonstration
"... This paper describes a system for Graph dRawing with Intelligent Placement, GRIP. The GRIP system is designed for drawing large graphs and uses a novel multidimensional forcedirected method together with fast energy function minimization. The system allows for drawing graphs with tens of thousa ..."
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Cited by 33 (7 self)
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This paper describes a system for Graph dRawing with Intelligent Placement, GRIP. The GRIP system is designed for drawing large graphs and uses a novel multidimensional forcedirected method together with fast energy function minimization. The system allows for drawing graphs with tens of thousands of vertices in under a minute on a midrage PC. To the best of the authors' knowledge GRIP surpasses the fastest previous algorithms. However, speed is not achieved at the expense of quality as the resulting drawings are quite aesthetically pleasing.