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The ProofTheory and Semantics of Intuitionistic Modal Logic
, 1994
"... Possible world semantics underlies many of the applications of modal logic in computer science and philosophy. The standard theory arises from interpreting the semantic definitions in the ordinary metatheory of informal classical mathematics. If, however, the same semantic definitions are interpret ..."
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Cited by 127 (0 self)
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Possible world semantics underlies many of the applications of modal logic in computer science and philosophy. The standard theory arises from interpreting the semantic definitions in the ordinary metatheory of informal classical mathematics. If, however, the same semantic definitions are interpreted in an intuitionistic metatheory then the induced modal logics no longer satisfy certain intuitionistically invalid principles. This thesis investigates the intuitionistic modal logics that arise in this way. Natural deduction systems for various intuitionistic modal logics are presented. From one point of view, these systems are selfjustifying in that a possible world interpretation of the modalities can be read off directly from the inference rules. A technical justification is given by the faithfulness of translations into intuitionistic firstorder logic. It is also established that, in many cases, the natural deduction systems induce wellknown intuitionistic modal logics, previously given by Hilbertstyle axiomatizations. The main benefit of the natural deduction systems over axiomatizations is their
Ontological Semantics
, 2004
"... This book introduces ontological semantics, a comprehensive approach to the treatment of text meaning by computer. Ontological semantics is an integrated complex of theories, methodologies, descriptions and implementations. In ontological semantics, a theory is viewed as a set of statements determin ..."
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Cited by 120 (36 self)
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This book introduces ontological semantics, a comprehensive approach to the treatment of text meaning by computer. Ontological semantics is an integrated complex of theories, methodologies, descriptions and implementations. In ontological semantics, a theory is viewed as a set of statements determining the format of descriptions of the phenomena with which the theory deals. A theory is associated with a methodology used to obtain the descriptions. Implementations are computer systems that use the descriptions to solve specific problems in text processing. Implementations of ontological semantics are combined with other processing systems to produce applications, such as information extraction or machine translation. The theory of ontological semantics is built as a society of microtheories covering such diverse ground as specific language phenomena, world knowledge organization, processing heuristics and issues relating to knowledge representation and implementation system architecture. The theory briefly sketched above is a toplevel microtheory, the ontological semantics theory per se. Descriptions in ontological semantics include text meaning representations, lexical entries, ontological concepts and instances as well as procedures for manipulating texts and their meanings. Methodologies in ontological semantics are sets of techniques and instructions for acquiring and
Disunification: a Survey
 Computational Logic: Essays in Honor of Alan
, 1991
"... Solving an equation in an algebra of terms is known as unification. Solving more complex formulas combining equations and involving in particular negation is called disunification. With such a broad definition, many works fall into the scope of disunification. The goal of this paper is to survey the ..."
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Cited by 57 (8 self)
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Solving an equation in an algebra of terms is known as unification. Solving more complex formulas combining equations and involving in particular negation is called disunification. With such a broad definition, many works fall into the scope of disunification. The goal of this paper is to survey these works and bring them together in a same framework. R'esum'e On appelle habituellement (algorithme d') unification un algorithme de r'esolution d'une 'equation dans une alg`ebre de termes. La r'esolution de formules plus complexes, comportant en particulier des n'egations, est appel'ee ici disunification. Avec une d'efinition aussi 'etendue, de nombreux travaux peuvent etre consid'er'es comme portant sur la disunification. L'objet de cet article de synth`ese est de rassembler tous ces travaux dans un meme formalisme. Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique, Bat. 490, Universit'e de ParisSud, 91405 ORSAY cedex, France. Email: comon@lri.lri.fr i Contents 1 Syntax 5 1.1 Basic Defini...
The Structure of the Models of Decidable Monadic Theories of Graphs
, 1991
"... In this article the structure of the models of decidable (weak) monadic theories of planar graphs is investigated. It is shown that if the (weak) monadic theory of a class K of planar graphs is decidable, then the treewidth in the sense of Robertson and Seymour (1984) of the elements of K is univer ..."
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Cited by 53 (2 self)
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In this article the structure of the models of decidable (weak) monadic theories of planar graphs is investigated. It is shown that if the (weak) monadic theory of a class K of planar graphs is decidable, then the treewidth in the sense of Robertson and Seymour (1984) of the elements of K is universally bounded and there is a class T of trees such that the (weak) monadic theory of K is interpretable in the (weak) monadic theory of T.
Linear Time Computable Problems and FirstOrder Descriptions
, 1996
"... this article is a proof that each FO problem can be solved in linear time if only relational structures of bounded degree are considered. The basic idea of the proof is a localization technique based on a method that was originally developed by Hanf (Hanf 1965) to show that the elementary theories o ..."
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Cited by 47 (1 self)
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this article is a proof that each FO problem can be solved in linear time if only relational structures of bounded degree are considered. The basic idea of the proof is a localization technique based on a method that was originally developed by Hanf (Hanf 1965) to show that the elementary theories of two structures are equal under certain conditions, i.e., that two structures agree on all firstorder sentences. Fagin, Stockmeyer and Vardi (Fagin et al. 1993) developed a variant of this technique, which is applicable in descriptive complexity theory to classes of finite relational structures of uniformly bounded degree. Variants of this result can also be found in Gaifman (1982) (see also Thomas (1991)). The essential content of this result, which is also called the HanfSphere Lemma, is that two relational structures of bounded degree satisfy the same firstorder sentences of a certain quantifierrank if both contain, up to a certain number m, the same number of isomorphism types of substructures of a bounded radius r. In addition, a technique of model interpretability from Rabin (1965) (see also Arnborg et al. (1991), Seese (1992), Compton and Henson (1987) and Baudisch et al. (1982)) is adapted to descriptive complexity classes, and proved to be useful for reducing the case of an arbitrary class of relational structures to a class of structures consisting only of the domain and one binary irreflexive and symmetric relation, i.e., the class of simple graphs. It is shown that the class of simple graphs is lintimeuniversal with respect to firstorder logic, which shows that many problems on descriptive complexity classes, described in languages extending firstorder logic for arbitrary structures, can be reduced to problems on simple graphs. This paper is organized as f...
Learning via Queries in ...
, 1992
"... We prove that the set of all recursive functions cannot be inferred using firstorder queries in the query language containing extra symbols [+; !]. The proof of this theorem involves a new decidability result about Presburger arithmetic which is of independent interest. Using our machinery, we ..."
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Cited by 41 (12 self)
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We prove that the set of all recursive functions cannot be inferred using firstorder queries in the query language containing extra symbols [+; !]. The proof of this theorem involves a new decidability result about Presburger arithmetic which is of independent interest. Using our machinery, we show that the set of all primitive recursive functions cannot be inferred with a bounded number of mind changes, again using queries in [+; !]. Additionally, we resolve an open question in [7] about passive versus active learning. 1) Introduction This paper presents new results in the area of query inductive inference (introduced in [7]); in addition, there are results of interest in mathematical logic. Inductive inference is the study of inductive machine learning in a theoretical framework. In query inductive inference, we study the ability of a Query Inference Machine 1 Supported, in part, by NSF grants CCR 8803641 and 9020079. 2 Also with IBM Corporation, Application Solutions...
Complexity Results for FirstOrder Theories of Temporal Constraints
 In Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference (KR'94
, 1994
"... We study the complexity of quantifier elimination and decision in firstorder theories of temporal constraints. With the exception of Ladkin, AI researchers have largely ignored this problem. We consider the firstorder theories of point and interval constraints over two time structures: the integer ..."
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We study the complexity of quantifier elimination and decision in firstorder theories of temporal constraints. With the exception of Ladkin, AI researchers have largely ignored this problem. We consider the firstorder theories of point and interval constraints over two time structures: the integers and the rationals. We show that in all cases quantifierelimination can be done in PSPACE. We also show that the decision problem for arbitrarily quantified sentences is PSPACEcomplete while for 9 k sentences it is \Sigma p k complete. Our results must be of interest to researchers working on temporal constraints, computational complexity of logical theories, constraint databases and constraint logic programming. 1 INTRODUCTION The study of temporal constraints has recently received much attention from the AI community [All83, LM88, Lad88, VKvB89, vBC90, DMP91, KL91, Mei91, vB92, Kou92, GS93, SD93]. Much of this work draws upon concepts and techniques from the literature of general co...
The Complexity of Query Evaluation in Indefinite Temporal Constraint Databases
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1997
"... In previous work we have developed the scheme of indefinite Lconstraint databases where L, the parameter, is a firstorder constraint language. This scheme extends the constraint database proposal of Kanellakis, Kuper and Revesz to include indefinite (or uncertain) information in the style of Imiel ..."
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Cited by 27 (11 self)
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In previous work we have developed the scheme of indefinite Lconstraint databases where L, the parameter, is a firstorder constraint language. This scheme extends the constraint database proposal of Kanellakis, Kuper and Revesz to include indefinite (or uncertain) information in the style of Imielinski and Lipski. In this paper we study the complexity of query evaluation in an important instance of this abstract scheme: indefinite temporal constraint databases. Our results indicate that the data/combined complexity of query evaluation does not change when we move from queries in relational calculus over relational databases, to queries in relational calculus with temporal constraints over temporal constraint databases. This fact remains true even when we consider query evaluation in relational databases with indefinite information vs. query evaluation in indefinite temporal constraint databases. In the course of our work, we provide precise bounds on the complexity of decision/quanti...
Monadic Second Order Logic on TreeLike Structures
, 1996
"... An operation M* which constructs from a given structure M a treelike structure whose domain consists of the finite sequences of elements of M is considered. A notion of automata running on such treelike structures is defined. It is shown that automata of this kind characterise expressive power of ..."
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Cited by 26 (8 self)
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An operation M* which constructs from a given structure M a treelike structure whose domain consists of the finite sequences of elements of M is considered. A notion of automata running on such treelike structures is defined. It is shown that automata of this kind characterise expressive power of monadic second order logic (MSOL) over treelike structures. Using this characterisation it is proved that MSOL theory of treelike structures is effectively reducible to that of the original structures. As another application of the characterisation it is shown that MSOL on trees of arbitrary degree is equivalent to first order logic extended with unary least fixpoint operator.