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78
Independent Component Analysis
 Neural Computing Surveys
, 2001
"... A common problem encountered in such disciplines as statistics, data analysis, signal processing, and neural network research, is nding a suitable representation of multivariate data. For computational and conceptual simplicity, such a representation is often sought as a linear transformation of the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1697 (98 self)
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A common problem encountered in such disciplines as statistics, data analysis, signal processing, and neural network research, is nding a suitable representation of multivariate data. For computational and conceptual simplicity, such a representation is often sought as a linear transformation of the original data. Wellknown linear transformation methods include, for example, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and projection pursuit. A recently developed linear transformation method is independent component analysis (ICA), in which the desired representation is the one that minimizes the statistical dependence of the components of the representation. Such a representation seems to capture the essential structure of the data in many applications. In this paper, we survey the existing theory and methods for ICA. 1
The "Independent Components" of Natural Scenes are Edge Filters
, 1997
"... It has previously been suggested that neurons with line and edge selectivities found in primary visual cortex of cats and monkeys form a sparse, distributed representation of natural scenes, and it has been reasoned that such responses should emerge from an unsupervised learning algorithm that attem ..."
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Cited by 517 (27 self)
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It has previously been suggested that neurons with line and edge selectivities found in primary visual cortex of cats and monkeys form a sparse, distributed representation of natural scenes, and it has been reasoned that such responses should emerge from an unsupervised learning algorithm that attempts to find a factorial code of independent visual features. We show here that a new unsupervised learning algorithm based on information maximization, a nonlinear "infomax" network, when applied to an ensemble of natural scenes produces sets of visual filters that are localized and oriented. Some of these filters are Gaborlike and resemble those produced by the sparsenessmaximization network. In addition, the outputs of these filters are as independent as possible, since this infomax network performs Independent Components Analysis or ICA, for sparse (supergaussian) component distributions. We compare the resulting ICA filters and their associated basis functions, with other decorrelating filters produced by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and zerophase whitening filters (ZCA). The ICA filters have more sparsely distributed (kurtotic) outputs on natural scenes. They also resemble the receptive fields of simple cells in visual cortex, which suggests that these neurons form a natural, informationtheoretic
Independent Component Filters Of Natural Images Compared With Simple Cells In Primary Visual Cortex
, 1998
"... this article we investigate to what extent the statistical properties of natural images can be used to understand the variation of receptive field properties of simple cells in the mammalian primary visual cortex. The receptive fields of simple cells have been studied extensively (e.g., Hubel & ..."
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Cited by 298 (0 self)
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this article we investigate to what extent the statistical properties of natural images can be used to understand the variation of receptive field properties of simple cells in the mammalian primary visual cortex. The receptive fields of simple cells have been studied extensively (e.g., Hubel & Wiesel 1968, DeValois et al. 1982a, DeAngelis et al. 1993): they are localised in space and time, have bandpass characteristics in the spatial and temporal frequency domains, are oriented, and are often sensitive to the direction of motion of a stimulus. Here we will concentrate on the spatial properties of simple cells. Several hypotheses as to the function of these cells have been proposed. As the cells preferentially respond to oriented edges or lines, they can be viewed as edge or line detectors. Their joint localisation in both the spatial domain and the spatial frequency domain has led to the suggestion that they mimic Gabor filters, minimising uncertainty in both domains (Daugman 1980, Marcelja 1980). More recently, the match between the operations performed by simple cells and the wavelet transform has attracted attention (e.g., Field 1993). The approaches based on Gabor filters and wavelets basically consider processing by the visual cortex as a general image processing strategy, relatively independent of detailed assumptions about image statistics. On the other hand, the edge and line detector hypothesis is based on the intuitive notion that edges and lines are both abundant and important in images. This theme of relating simple cell properties with the statistics of natural images was explored extensively by Field (1987, 1994). He proposed that the cells are optimized specifically for coding natural images. He argued that one possibility for such a code, sparse coding...
Emergence of Phase and ShiftInvariant Features by Decomposition of Natural Images into Independent Feature Subspaces
, 2000
"... this article, we show that the same principle of independence maximization can explain the emergence of phase and shiftinvariant features, similar to those found in complex cells. This new kind of emergence is obtained by maximizing the independence between norms of projections on linear subspaces ..."
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Cited by 177 (31 self)
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this article, we show that the same principle of independence maximization can explain the emergence of phase and shiftinvariant features, similar to those found in complex cells. This new kind of emergence is obtained by maximizing the independence between norms of projections on linear subspaces (instead of the independence of simple linear filter outputs). Thenorms of the projections on such "independent feature subspaces" then indicate the values of invariant features
Sparse Code Shrinkage: Denoising of Nongaussian Data by Maximum Likelihood Estimation
, 1999
"... Sparse coding is a method for finding a representation of data in which each of the components of the representation is only rarely significantly active. Such a representation is closely related to redundancy reduction and independent component analysis, and has some neurophysiological plausibility. ..."
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Cited by 98 (14 self)
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Sparse coding is a method for finding a representation of data in which each of the components of the representation is only rarely significantly active. Such a representation is closely related to redundancy reduction and independent component analysis, and has some neurophysiological plausibility. In this paper, we show how sparse coding can be used for denoising. Using maximum likelihood estimation of nongaussian variables corrupted by gaussian noise, we show how to apply a softthresholding (shrinkage) operator on the components of sparse coding so as to reduce noise. Our method is closely related to the method of wavelet shrinkage, but it has the important benefit over wavelet methods that the representation is determined solely by the statistical properties of the data. The wavelet representation, on the other hand, relies heavily on certain mathematical properties (like selfsimilarity) that may be only weakly related to the properties of natural data.
Representation is Representation of Similarities
 Behavioral and Brain Sciences
, 1996
"... Advanced perceptual systems are faced with the problem of securing a principled relationship between the world and its internal representation. I propose a unified approach to visual representation, based on Shepard's (1968) notion of secondorder isomorphism. According to the proposed theory, ..."
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Cited by 88 (19 self)
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Advanced perceptual systems are faced with the problem of securing a principled relationship between the world and its internal representation. I propose a unified approach to visual representation, based on Shepard's (1968) notion of secondorder isomorphism. According to the proposed theory, a shape is represented internally by the responses of a few tuned modules, each of which is broadly selective for some reference shape, whose similarity to the stimulus it measures. The result is a philosophically appealing, computationally feasible, biologically credible, and formally veridical representation of a distal shape space. This approach supports representation of and discrimination among shapes radically different from the reference ones, while bypassing the need for the computationally problematic decomposition into parts; it also addresses the needs of shape categorization, and can be used to derive a range of models of perceived similarity. Representation is Representation of Sim...
Context and hierarchy in a probabilistic image model
 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
, 2006
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Sun: A Bayesian framework for saliency using natural statistics
 Journal of Vision
, 2008
"... We propose a definition of saliency by considering what the visual system is trying to optimize when directing attention. The resulting model is a Bayesian framework from which bottomup saliency emerges naturally as the selfinformation of visual features, and overall saliency (incorporating topdo ..."
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Cited by 62 (3 self)
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We propose a definition of saliency by considering what the visual system is trying to optimize when directing attention. The resulting model is a Bayesian framework from which bottomup saliency emerges naturally as the selfinformation of visual features, and overall saliency (incorporating topdown information with bottomup saliency) emerges as the pointwise mutual information between the features and the target when searching for a target. An implementation of our framework demonstrates that our model’s bottomup saliency maps perform as well as or better than existing algorithms in predicting people’s fixations in free viewing. Unlike existing saliency measures, which depend on the statistics of the particular image being viewed, our measure of saliency is derived from natural image statistics, obtained in advance from a collection of natural images. For this reason, we call our model SUN (Saliency Using Natural statistics). A measure of saliency based on natural image statistics, rather than based on a single test image, provides a straightforward explanation for many search asymmetries observed in humans; the statistics of a single test image lead to predictions that are not consistent with these asymmetries. In our model, saliency is computed locally, which is consistent with the neuroanatomy of the early visual system and results in an efficient algorithm with few free parameters.