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23
What Is an Algorithm?
, 2000
"... Machines and Recursive Definitions 2.1 Abstract Machines The bestknown model of mechanical computation is (still) the first, introduced by Turing [18], and after half a century of study, few doubt the truth of the fundamental ChurchTuring Thesis : A function f : N # N on the natural numbers (o ..."
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Machines and Recursive Definitions 2.1 Abstract Machines The bestknown model of mechanical computation is (still) the first, introduced by Turing [18], and after half a century of study, few doubt the truth of the fundamental ChurchTuring Thesis : A function f : N # N on the natural numbers (or, more generally, on strings from a finite alphabet) is computable in principle exactly when it can be computed by a Turing Machine. The ChurchTuring Thesis grounds proofs of undecidability and it is essential for the most important applications of logic. On the other hand, it cannot be argued seriously that Turing machines model faithfully all algorithms on the natural numbers. If, for example, we code the input n in binary (rather than unary) notation, then the time needed for the computation of f(n) can sometimes be considerably shortened; and if we let the machine use two tapes rather than one, then (in some cases) we may gain a quadratic speedup of the computation, see [8]. This mea...
Gödel's program for new axioms: Why, where, how and what?
 IN GODEL '96
, 1996
"... From 1931 until late in his life (at least 1970) Gödel called for the pursuit of new axioms for mathematics to settle both undecided numbertheoretical propositions (of the form obtained in his incompleteness results) and undecided settheoretical propositions (in particular CH). As to the nature of ..."
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From 1931 until late in his life (at least 1970) Gödel called for the pursuit of new axioms for mathematics to settle both undecided numbertheoretical propositions (of the form obtained in his incompleteness results) and undecided settheoretical propositions (in particular CH). As to the nature of these, Gödel made a variety of suggestions, but most frequently he emphasized the route of introducing ever higher axioms of in nity. In particular, he speculated (in his 1946 Princeton remarks) that there might be a uniform (though nondecidable) rationale for the choice of the latter. Despite the intense exploration of the "higher infinite" in the last 30odd years, no single rationale of that character has emerged. Moreover, CH still remains undecided by such axioms, though they have been demonstrated to have many other interesting settheoretical consequences. In this paper, I present a new very general notion of the "unfolding" closure of schematically axiomatized formal systems S which provides a uniform systematic means of expanding in an essential way both the language and axioms (and hence theorems) of such systems S. Reporting joint work with T. Strahm, a characterization is given in more familiar terms in the case that S is a basic
On Founding the Theory of Algorithms
, 1998
"... machines and implementations The first definition of an abstract machine was given by Turing, in the classic [20]. Without repeating here the wellknown definition (e.g., see [6]), 13 we recall that each Turing machine M is equipped with a "semiinfinite tape" which it uses both to comp ..."
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machines and implementations The first definition of an abstract machine was given by Turing, in the classic [20]. Without repeating here the wellknown definition (e.g., see [6]), 13 we recall that each Turing machine M is equipped with a "semiinfinite tape" which it uses both to compute and also to communicate with its environment: To determine the value f(n) (if any) of the partial function 14 f : N * N computed by M , we put n on the tape in some standard way, e.g., by placing n + 1 consecutive 1s at its beginning; we start the machine in some specified, initial, internal state q 0 and looking at the leftmost end of the tape; and we wait until the machine stops (if it does), at which time the value f(n) can be read off the tape, by counting the successive 1s at the left end. Turing argued that the numbertheoretic functions which can (in principle) be computed by any deterministic, physical device are exactly those which can be computed by a Turing machine, and the correspon...
A mathematical modeling of pure, recursive algorithms
 Logic at Botik ’89
, 1989
"... This paper follows previous work on the Formal Language of Recursion FLR and develops intensional (algorithmic) semantics for it: the intension of a term t on a structure A is a recursor, a set–theoretic object which represents the (abstract, recursive) algorithm defined by t on A. Main results are ..."
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This paper follows previous work on the Formal Language of Recursion FLR and develops intensional (algorithmic) semantics for it: the intension of a term t on a structure A is a recursor, a set–theoretic object which represents the (abstract, recursive) algorithm defined by t on A. Main results are the soundness of the reduction calculus of FLR (which models faithful, algorithm–preserving compilation) for this semantics, and the robustness of the class of algorithms assigned to a structure under algorithm adjunction. This is the second in a sequence of papers begun with [16] in which we develop a foundation for the theory of computation based on a mathematical modeling of recursive algorithms. The general features, aims and methodological assumptions of this program were discussed and illustrated by examples in the preliminary, expository report [15]. In [16] we studied the formal language of recursion FLR which is the main technical tool for this work, we developed several alternative denotational semantics for it and we established a key unique termination theorem for a reduction calculus which models faithful (algorithm–preserving) compilation. Here we will define the intensional semantics of FLR for structures with given (pure) recursors, the set–theoretic objects we use to model pure (side–effect–free) algorithms: the intension of a term t on each structure A is a recursor which models the algorithm expressed by t on A. Basic results of the paper During the preparation of this paper the author was partially supported by an NSF
Recursion and Corecursion Have the Same Equational Logic
 Comput. Sci
"... This paper is concerned with the equational logic of corecursion, that is of definitions involving final coalgebra maps. The framework for our study is iteration theories (cf. e.g. Bloom and ' Esik [2, 3]), recently reintroduced as models of the FLR 0 fragment of the Formal Language of Re ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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This paper is concerned with the equational logic of corecursion, that is of definitions involving final coalgebra maps. The framework for our study is iteration theories (cf. e.g. Bloom and ' Esik [2, 3]), recently reintroduced as models of the FLR 0 fragment of the Formal Language of Recursion [7, 8, 9]. We present a new class of iteration theories derived from final coalgebras. This allows us to reason with a number of types of fixedpoint equations which heretofore seemed to require metric or ordertheoretic ideas. All of the work can be done using finality properties and equational reasoning. Having a semantics, we obtain the following completeness result: the equations involving fixedpoint terms which are valid for final coalgebra interpretations are exactly those valid in a number of contexts pertaining to recursion. For example, they coincide with the equations valid for leastfixed point recursion on dcpo's. We also present a new version of the proof of the well...
Computation on abstract data types. The extensional approach, with an application to streams
 ANNALS OF PURE AND APPLIED LOGIC
"... In this paper we specialize the notion of abstract computational procedure previously introduced for intensionally presented structures to those which are extensionally given. This is provided by a form of generalized recursion theory which uses schemata for explicit definition, conditional definiti ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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In this paper we specialize the notion of abstract computational procedure previously introduced for intensionally presented structures to those which are extensionally given. This is provided by a form of generalized recursion theory which uses schemata for explicit definition, conditional definition and least fixed point (LFP) recursion in functionals of type level ≤ 2 over any appropriate structure. It is applied here to the case of potentially infinite (and more general partial) streams as an abstract data type.
Recursion Versus Iteration at HigherOrders
, 1997
"... . We extend the wellknown analysis of recursionremoval in firstorder program schemes to a higherorder language of finitely typed and polymorphically typed functional programs, the semantics of which is based on callbyname parameterpassing. We introduce methods for recursionremoval, i.e. for ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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. We extend the wellknown analysis of recursionremoval in firstorder program schemes to a higherorder language of finitely typed and polymorphically typed functional programs, the semantics of which is based on callbyname parameterpassing. We introduce methods for recursionremoval, i.e. for translating higherorder recursive programs into higherorder iterative programs, and determine conditions under which this translation is possible. Just as finitely typed recursive programs are naturally classified by their orders, so are finitely typed iterative programs. This syntactic classification of recursive and iterative programs corresponds to a semantic (or computational) classification: the higher the order of programs, the more functions they can compute. 1 Background and Motivation Although our analysis is entirely theoretical, as it combines methods from typed calculi, from abstract recursion theory and from denotational semantics, the problems we consider have a strong pra...
The Unfolding of NonFinitist Arithmetic
, 2000
"... The unfolding of schematic formal systems is a novel concept which was initiated in Feferman [6]. This paper is mainly concerned with the prooftheoretic analysis of various unfolding systems for nonnitist arithmetic NFA. In particular, we examine two restricted unfoldings U 0 (NFA) and U 1 (NFA ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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The unfolding of schematic formal systems is a novel concept which was initiated in Feferman [6]. This paper is mainly concerned with the prooftheoretic analysis of various unfolding systems for nonnitist arithmetic NFA. In particular, we examine two restricted unfoldings U 0 (NFA) and U 1 (NFA), as well as a full unfolding, U(NFA). The principal results then state: (i) U 0 (NFA) is equivalent to PA; (ii) U 1 (NFA) is equivalent to RA<! ; (iii) U(NFA) is equivalent to RA< 0 . Thus U(NFA) is prooftheoretically equivalent to predicative analysis.
Reflections on Skolem's Paradox
"... In 1922, Thoraf Skolem published a paper titled "Some remarks on Axiomatized Set Theory". The paper presents a new proof of... This dissertation focuses almost exclusively on the first half of this project  i.e., the half which tries to expose an initial tension between Cantor's the ..."
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In 1922, Thoraf Skolem published a paper titled "Some remarks on Axiomatized Set Theory". The paper presents a new proof of... This dissertation focuses almost exclusively on the first half of this project  i.e., the half which tries to expose an initial tension between Cantor's theorem and the LöwenheimSkolem theorem. I argue that, even on quite naive understandings of set theory and model theory, there is no such tension. Hence, Skolem's Paradox is not a genuine paradox, and there is very little reason to worry about (or even to investigate) the more extreme consequences that are supposed to follow from this paradox. The heart of my...
The Logic Of Functional Recursion
, 1997
"... this paper are related to "program verification" very much like predicate logic and its completeness are related to axiomatic set theory; they are certainly relevant, but not of much help in establishing specific, concrete results. In its most general form, a recursive definition of a func ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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this paper are related to "program verification" very much like predicate logic and its completeness are related to axiomatic set theory; they are certainly relevant, but not of much help in establishing specific, concrete results. In its most general form, a recursive definition of a function is expressed by a fixpoint equation of the form