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161
Face recognition: features versus templates
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1993
"... AbstractOver the last 20 years, several different techniques have been proposed for computer recognition of human faces. The purpose of this paper is to compare two simple but general strategies on a common database (frontal images of faces of 47 people: 26 males and 21 females, four images per per ..."
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Cited by 561 (23 self)
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AbstractOver the last 20 years, several different techniques have been proposed for computer recognition of human faces. The purpose of this paper is to compare two simple but general strategies on a common database (frontal images of faces of 47 people: 26 males and 21 females, four images per person). We have developed and implemented two new algorithms; the first one is based on the computation of a set of geometrical features, such as nose width and length, mouth position, and chin shape, and the second one is based on almostgreylevel template matching. The results obtained on the testing sets (about 90 % correct recognition using geometrical features and perfect recognition using template matching) favor our implementation of the templatematching approach. Index TermsClassification, face recognition, KarhunenLoeve expansion, template matching.
Regularization Theory and Neural Networks Architectures
 Neural Computation
, 1995
"... We had previously shown that regularization principles lead to approximation schemes which are equivalent to networks with one layer of hidden units, called Regularization Networks. In particular, standard smoothness functionals lead to a subclass of regularization networks, the well known Radial Ba ..."
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Cited by 309 (31 self)
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We had previously shown that regularization principles lead to approximation schemes which are equivalent to networks with one layer of hidden units, called Regularization Networks. In particular, standard smoothness functionals lead to a subclass of regularization networks, the well known Radial Basis Functions approximation schemes. This paper shows that regularization networks encompass a much broader range of approximation schemes, including many of the popular general additive models and some of the neural networks. In particular, we introduce new classes of smoothness functionals that lead to different classes of basis functions. Additive splines as well as some tensor product splines can be obtained from appropriate classes of smoothness functionals. Furthermore, the same generalization that extends Radial Basis Functions (RBF) to Hyper Basis Functions (HBF) also leads from additive models to ridge approximation models, containing as special cases Breiman's hinge functions, som...
Regularization networks and support vector machines
 Advances in Computational Mathematics
, 2000
"... Regularization Networks and Support Vector Machines are techniques for solving certain problems of learning from examples – in particular the regression problem of approximating a multivariate function from sparse data. Radial Basis Functions, for example, are a special case of both regularization a ..."
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Cited by 266 (33 self)
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Regularization Networks and Support Vector Machines are techniques for solving certain problems of learning from examples – in particular the regression problem of approximating a multivariate function from sparse data. Radial Basis Functions, for example, are a special case of both regularization and Support Vector Machines. We review both formulations in the context of Vapnik’s theory of statistical learning which provides a general foundation for the learning problem, combining functional analysis and statistics. The emphasis is on regression: classification is treated as a special case.
Task Decomposition Through Competition in a Modular Connectionist Architecture
 COGNITIVE SCIENCE
, 1990
"... A novel modular connectionist architecture is presented in which the networks composing the architecture compete to learn the training patterns. As a result of the competition, different networks learn different training patterns and, thus, learn to compute different functions. The architecture pe ..."
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Cited by 181 (5 self)
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A novel modular connectionist architecture is presented in which the networks composing the architecture compete to learn the training patterns. As a result of the competition, different networks learn different training patterns and, thus, learn to compute different functions. The architecture performs task decomposition in the sense that it learns to partition a task into two or more functionally independent vii tasks and allocates distinct networks to learn each task. In addition, the architecture tends to allocate to each task the network whose topology is most appropriate to that task, and tends to allocate the same network to similar tasks and distinct networks to dissimilar tasks. Furthermore, it can be easily modified so as to...
Modal Matching for Correspondence and Recognition
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1995
"... Modal matching is a new method for establishing correspondences and computing canonical descriptions. The method is based on the idea of describing objects in terms of generalized symmetries, as defined by each object's eigenmodes. The resulting modal description is used for object recognition and c ..."
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Cited by 181 (6 self)
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Modal matching is a new method for establishing correspondences and computing canonical descriptions. The method is based on the idea of describing objects in terms of generalized symmetries, as defined by each object's eigenmodes. The resulting modal description is used for object recognition and categorization, where shape similarities are expressed as the amounts of modal deformation energy needed to align the two objects. In general, modes provide a globaltolocal ordering of shape deformation and thus allow for selecting which types of deformations are used in object alignment and comparison. In contrast to previous techniques, which required correspondence to be computed with an initial or prototype shape, modal matching utilizes a new type of finite element formulation that allows for an object's eigenmodes to be computed directly from available image information. This improved formulation provides greater generality and accuracy, and is applicable to data of any dimensionality. Correspondence results with 2D contour and point feature data are shown, and recognition experiments with 2D images of hand tools and airplanes are described.
Learning Machines
, 1965
"... This book is about machines that learn to discover hidden relationships in data. A constant sfream of data bombards our senses and millions of sensory channels carry information into our brains. Brains are also learning machines that condition, ..."
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Cited by 150 (0 self)
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This book is about machines that learn to discover hidden relationships in data. A constant sfream of data bombards our senses and millions of sensory channels carry information into our brains. Brains are also learning machines that condition,
Training Invariant Support Vector Machines
, 2002
"... Practical experience has shown that in order to obtain the best possible performance, prior knowledge about invariances of a classification problem at hand ought to be incorporated into the training procedure. We describe and review all known methods for doing so in support vector machines, provide ..."
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Cited by 136 (16 self)
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Practical experience has shown that in order to obtain the best possible performance, prior knowledge about invariances of a classification problem at hand ought to be incorporated into the training procedure. We describe and review all known methods for doing so in support vector machines, provide experimental results, and discuss their respective merits. One of the significant new results reported in this work is our recent achievement of the lowest reported test error on the wellknown MNIST digit recognition benchmark task, with SVM training times that are also significantly faster than previous SVM methods.
Gaussian Networks for Direct Adaptive Control
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 1991
"... A direct adaptive tracking control architecture is proposed and evaluated for a class of continuous time nonlinear dynamic systems for which an explicit linear parameterization of the uncertainty in the dynamics is either unknown or impossible. The architecture employs a network of gaussian radial ..."
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Cited by 133 (8 self)
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A direct adaptive tracking control architecture is proposed and evaluated for a class of continuous time nonlinear dynamic systems for which an explicit linear parameterization of the uncertainty in the dynamics is either unknown or impossible. The architecture employs a network of gaussian radial basis functions to adaptively compensate for the plant nonlinearities. Under mild assumptions about the degree of smoothness exhibited by the nonlinear functions, the algorithm is proven to be globally stable, with tracking errors converging to a neighborhood of zero. A constructive procedure is detailed, which directly translates the assumed smoothness properties of the nonlinearities involved into a specification of the network required to represent the plant to a chosen degree of accuracy. A stable weight adjustment mechanism is then determined using Lyapunov theory. The network construction and performance of the resulting controller are illustrated through simulations with example syst...
Similarity Metric Learning for a VariableKernel Classifier
 Neural Computation
, 1995
"... Nearestneighbour interpolation algorithms have many useful properties for applications to learning, but they often exhibit poor generalization. In this paper, it is shown that much better generalization can be obtained by using a variable interpolation kernel in combination with conjugate gradient ..."
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Cited by 112 (1 self)
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Nearestneighbour interpolation algorithms have many useful properties for applications to learning, but they often exhibit poor generalization. In this paper, it is shown that much better generalization can be obtained by using a variable interpolation kernel in combination with conjugate gradient optimization of the similarity metric and kernel size. The resulting method is called variablekernel similarity metric (VSM) learning. It has been tested on several standard classification data sets, and on these problems it shows better generalization than back propagation and most other learning methods. An important advantage is that the system can operate as a black box in which no model minimization parameters need to be experimentally set by the user. The number of parameters that must be determined through optimization are orders of magnitude less than for backpropagation or RBF networks, which may indicate that the method better captures the essential degrees of variation in learni...