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Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming: Denotation, Logic and Applications
, 2002
"... The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. We present a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and nondeterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus. We also give a d ..."
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Cited by 88 (30 self)
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The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. We present a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and nondeterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus. We also give a denotational semantics for the strongestpostcondition of ntcc processes and, based on this semantics, we develop a proof system for lineartemporal properties of these processes. The expressiveness of ntcc is illustrated by modeling cells, timed systems such as RCX controllers, multiagent systems such as the Predator /Prey game, and musical applications such as generation of rhythms patterns and controlled improvisation. 1
Soft Concurrent Constraint Programming
, 2001
"... . Soft constraints extend classical constraints to represent multiple consistency levels, and thus provide a way to express preferences, fuzziness, and uncertainty. While there are many soft constraint solving algorithms, even distributed ones, by now there seems to be no concurrent programming fram ..."
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Cited by 58 (34 self)
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. Soft constraints extend classical constraints to represent multiple consistency levels, and thus provide a way to express preferences, fuzziness, and uncertainty. While there are many soft constraint solving algorithms, even distributed ones, by now there seems to be no concurrent programming framework where soft constraints can be handled. In this paper we show how the classical concurrent constraint (cc) programming framework can work with soft constraints, and we also propose an extension of cc languages which can use soft constraints to prune and direct the search for a solution. We believe that this new programming paradigm, called soft cc (scc), can be very useful in many webrelated scenarios. In fact, the language level allows web agents to express their interaction and negotiation protocols, and also to post their requests in terms of preferences, and the underlying soft constraint solver can nd an agreement among the agents even if their requests are incompatible. 1
Confluence in Concurrent Constraint Programming
 IN ALAGAR AND NIVAT, EDITORS, PROCEEDINGS OF AMAST '95, LNCS 936
, 1996
"... Concurrent constraint programming (ccp), like most of the concurrent paradigms, has a mechanism of global choice which makes computations dependent on the scheduling of processes. This is one of the main reasons why the formal semantics of ccp is more complicated than the one of its deterministic an ..."
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Cited by 27 (13 self)
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Concurrent constraint programming (ccp), like most of the concurrent paradigms, has a mechanism of global choice which makes computations dependent on the scheduling of processes. This is one of the main reasons why the formal semantics of ccp is more complicated than the one of its deterministic and localchoice sublanguages. In this paper we study various subsets of ccp obtained by adding some restriction on the notion of choice, or by requiring confluency, i.e. independency from the scheduling strategy. We show that it is possible to define simple denotational semantics for these subsets, for various notions of observables. Finally, as an application of our results we develop a framework for the compositional analysis of full ccp. The basic idea is to approximate an arbitrary ccp program by a program in the restricted language, and then analyze the latter, by applying the standard techniques of abstract interpretation to its denotational semantics.
Unfold/fold transformations of CCP programs
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 1998
"... We introduce a transformation system for concurrent constraint programming (CCP). We define suitable applicability conditions for the transformations which guarantee that the input/output CCP semantics is preserved also when distinguishing deadlocked computations from successful ones and when consid ..."
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Cited by 22 (6 self)
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We introduce a transformation system for concurrent constraint programming (CCP). We define suitable applicability conditions for the transformations which guarantee that the input/output CCP semantics is preserved also when distinguishing deadlocked computations from successful ones and when considering intermediate results of (possibly) nonterminating computations. The system allows us to optimize CCP programs while preserving their intended meaning: In addition to the usual benefits that one has for sequential declarative languages, the transformation of concurrent programs can also lead to the elimination of communication channels and of synchronization points, to the transformation of nondeterministic computations into deterministic ones, and to the crucial saving of computational space. Furthermore, since the transformation system preserves the deadlock behavior of programs, it can be used for proving deadlock freeness of a given program with respect to a class of queries. To this aim it is sometimes sufficient to apply our transformations and to specialize the resulting program with respect to the given queries in such a way that the obtained program is trivially deadlock free.
Nondeterminism and Infinite Computations in Constraint Programming
, 1995
"... We investigate the semantics of concurrent constraint programming and of various sublanguages, with particular emphasis on nondeterminism and infinite behavior. The aim is to find out what is the minimal structure which a domain must have in order to capture these two aspects. We show that a notion ..."
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Cited by 22 (6 self)
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We investigate the semantics of concurrent constraint programming and of various sublanguages, with particular emphasis on nondeterminism and infinite behavior. The aim is to find out what is the minimal structure which a domain must have in order to capture these two aspects. We show that a notion of observables, obtained by the upwardclosure of the results of computations, is relatively easy to model even in presence of synchronization. On the contrary modeling the exact set of results is problematic, even for the simple sublanguage of constraint logic programming. We show that most of the standard topological techniques fail in capturing this more precise notion of observables. The analysis of these failed attempts leads us to consider a categorical approach.
On the Expressive Power of Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Languages
 In Proceedings of the 4th ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Principles and Practice of Declarative Programming
, 2002
"... The tcc paradigm is a formalism for timed concurrent constraint programming. Several tcc languages differing in their way of expressing infinite behavior have been proposed in the literature. In this paper we study the expressive power of some of these languages. In particular, we show that (1) recu ..."
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Cited by 17 (2 self)
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The tcc paradigm is a formalism for timed concurrent constraint programming. Several tcc languages differing in their way of expressing infinite behavior have been proposed in the literature. In this paper we study the expressive power of some of these languages. In particular, we show that (1) recursion using procedures with parameters is behaviorally equivalent to parameterless procedures with dynamic scoping, that (2) replication is behaviorally equivalent to parameterless procedures with static scoping, and that (3) the languages from (1) are strictly more expressive than the languages from (2). Furthermore, we show that behavioral equivalence is undecidable for the languages from (1), but decidable for the languages from (2). Both undecidability results hold even if the process variables take values from a fixed finite domain.
The expressivity of universal timed CCP: undecidability of Monadic FLTL and closure operators for security
 IN PPDP ’08: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 10TH INTERNATIONAL ACM SIGPLAN CONFERENCE ON PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF DECLARATIVE PROGRAMMING
, 2008
"... The timed concurrent constraint programing model (tcc) is a declarative framework, closely related to FirstOrder Linear Temporal Logic (FLTL), for modeling reactive systems. The universal tcc formalism (utcc) is an extension of tcc with the ability to express mobility. Here mobility is understood a ..."
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Cited by 17 (12 self)
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The timed concurrent constraint programing model (tcc) is a declarative framework, closely related to FirstOrder Linear Temporal Logic (FLTL), for modeling reactive systems. The universal tcc formalism (utcc) is an extension of tcc with the ability to express mobility. Here mobility is understood as communication of private names as typically done for mobile systems and security protocols. This paper is devoted to the study of 1) the expressiveness of utcc and 2) its semantic foundations. As applications of this study, we also state 3) a noteworthy decidability result for the wellestablished framework of FLTL and 4) bring new semantic insights into the modeling of security protocols. More precisely, we show that in contrast to tcc, utcc is Turingpowerful by encoding Minsky machines. The encoding uses a monadic constraint system allowing us to prove a new result for a fragment of FLTL: The undecidability of the validity problem for monadic FLTL without equality and function symbols. This result refutes a decidability conjecture for FLTL from a previous paper. It also justifies the restriction imposed in previous decidability results on the quantification of flexiblevariables. We shall also show that as in tcc, utcc processes can be semantically represented as partial closure operators. The representation is fully abstract wrt the inputoutput behavior of processes for a meaningful fragment of the utcc. This shows that mobility can be captured as closure operators over an underlying constraint system. As an application we identify a language for security protocols that can be represented as closure operators over a cryptographic constraint system.
On the Expressive Power of Concurrent Constraint Programming Languages
 IN PPDP 2002
, 2002
"... The tcc paradigm is a formalism for timed concurrent constraint programming. Several tcc languages di#ering in their way of expressing infinite behavior have been proposed in the literature. In this paper ..."
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Cited by 15 (15 self)
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The tcc paradigm is a formalism for timed concurrent constraint programming. Several tcc languages di#ering in their way of expressing infinite behavior have been proposed in the literature. In this paper
Abstracting Synchronization in Concurrent Constraint Programming
 In Proc. 5th Int'l Symposium on Programming Language Implementation and Logic Programming
, 1994
"... ing Synchronization in Concurrent Constraint Programming ? Enea Zaffanella 1 Roberto Giacobazzi 2 Giorgio Levi 1 1 Dipartimento di Informatica, Universit`a di Pisa Corso Italia 40, 56125 Pisa (zaffanel,levi)@di.unipi.it 2 LIX, Laboratoire d'Informatique, ' Ecole Polytechnique 9112 ..."
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Cited by 14 (5 self)
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ing Synchronization in Concurrent Constraint Programming ? Enea Zaffanella 1 Roberto Giacobazzi 2 Giorgio Levi 1 1 Dipartimento di Informatica, Universit`a di Pisa Corso Italia 40, 56125 Pisa (zaffanel,levi)@di.unipi.it 2 LIX, Laboratoire d'Informatique, ' Ecole Polytechnique 91128 Palaiseau cedex giaco@lix.polytechnique.fr Abstract. Because of synchronization based on blocking ask, some of the most important techniques for data flow analysis of (sequential) constraint logic programs (clp) are no longer applicable to cc languages. In particular, the generalized approach to the semantics, intended to factorize the (standard) semantics so as to make explicit the domaindependent features (i.e. operators and semantic objects which may be influenced by abstraction) becomes useless for relevant applications. A possible solution to this problem is based on a more abstract (nonstandard) semantics: the success semantics, which models non suspended computations only. With a program tr...