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GOLOG: A Logic Programming Language for Dynamic Domains
, 1994
"... This paper proposes a new logic programming language called GOLOG whose interpreter automatically maintains an explicit representation of the dynamic world being modeled, on the basis of user supplied axioms about the preconditions and effects of actions and the initial state of the world. This allo ..."
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Cited by 500 (63 self)
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This paper proposes a new logic programming language called GOLOG whose interpreter automatically maintains an explicit representation of the dynamic world being modeled, on the basis of user supplied axioms about the preconditions and effects of actions and the initial state of the world. This allows programs to reason about the state of the world and consider the effects of various possible courses of action before committing to a particular behavior. The net effect is that programs may be written at a much higher level of abstraction than is usually possible. The language appears well suited for applications in high level control of robots and industrial processes, intelligent software agents, discrete event simulation, etc. It is based on a formal theory of action specified in an extended version of the situation calculus. A prototype implementation in Prolog has been developed.
Representing Action and Change by Logic Programs
 Journal of Logic Programming
, 1993
"... We represent properties of actions in a logic programming language that uses both classical negation and negation as failure. The method is applicable to temporal projection problems with incomplete information, as well as to reasoning about the past. It is proved to be sound relative to a semantics ..."
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Cited by 381 (27 self)
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We represent properties of actions in a logic programming language that uses both classical negation and negation as failure. The method is applicable to temporal projection problems with incomplete information, as well as to reasoning about the past. It is proved to be sound relative to a semantics of action based on states and transition functions. 1 Introduction This paper extends the work of Eshghi and Kowalski [6], Evans [7] and Apt and Bezem [1] on representing properties of actions in logic programming languages with negation as failure. Our goal is to overcome some of the limitations of the earlier work. The existing formalizations of action in logic programming are adequate for only the simplest kind of temporal reasoning"temporal projection." In a temporal projection problem, we are given a description of the initial state of the world, and use properties of actions to determine what the world will look like after a series of actions is performed. Moreover, the existing ...
Probabilistic Horn abduction and Bayesian networks
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1993
"... This paper presents a simple framework for Hornclause abduction, with probabilities associated with hypotheses. The framework incorporates assumptions about the rule base and independence assumptions amongst hypotheses. It is shown how any probabilistic knowledge representable in a discrete Bayesia ..."
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Cited by 294 (37 self)
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This paper presents a simple framework for Hornclause abduction, with probabilities associated with hypotheses. The framework incorporates assumptions about the rule base and independence assumptions amongst hypotheses. It is shown how any probabilistic knowledge representable in a discrete Bayesian belief network can be represented in this framework. The main contribution is in finding a relationship between logical and probabilistic notions of evidential reasoning. This provides a useful representation language in its own right, providing a compromise between heuristic and epistemic adequacy. It also shows how Bayesian networks can be extended beyond a propositional language. This paper also shows how a language with only (unconditionally) independent hypotheses can represent any probabilistic knowledge, and argues that it is better to invent new hypotheses to explain dependence rather than having to worry about dependence in the language. Scholar, Canadian Institute for Advanced...
State Constraints Revisited
, 1994
"... We pursue the perspective of Reiter that in the situation calculus one can formalize primitive, determinate actions with axioms which, among others, include two disjoint sets: a set of successor state axioms and a set of action precondition axioms. We posed ourselves the problem of automatically gen ..."
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Cited by 225 (32 self)
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We pursue the perspective of Reiter that in the situation calculus one can formalize primitive, determinate actions with axioms which, among others, include two disjoint sets: a set of successor state axioms and a set of action precondition axioms. We posed ourselves the problem of automatically generating successor state axioms, given only a set of effect axioms and a set of state constraints. This is a special version of what has been traditionally called the ramification problem. To our surprise, we found that there are state constraints whose role is not to yield indirect effects of actions. Rather, they are implicit axioms about action preconditions. As such, they are intimately related to the classical qualification problem. We also discovered that other kinds of state constraints arise; these are related to the formalization of strategic or control information. This paper is devoted to describing our results along these lines, focusing on ramification and qualification state con...
ConGolog, a concurrent programming language based on the situation calculus: language and implementation
, 2000
"... ..."
Methodology for the Design and Evaluation of Ontologies
, 1995
"... This paper describes the methodology used in the Enterprise Integration Laboratory for the design and evaluation of integrated ontologies, including the proposal of new ontologies and the extension of existing ontologies (see Figure 1). We illustrate these ideas with examples from our activity and o ..."
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Cited by 188 (8 self)
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This paper describes the methodology used in the Enterprise Integration Laboratory for the design and evaluation of integrated ontologies, including the proposal of new ontologies and the extension of existing ontologies (see Figure 1). We illustrate these ideas with examples from our activity and organisation ontologies. 2 Motivating Scenarios
Embracing Causality in Specifying the Indirect Effects of Actions
, 1995
"... This paper considers the problem of specifying the effects of actions in the situation calculus using domain constraints. We argue that normal state constraints that refer to only the truth values of fluents are not strong enough for this purpose, and that a notion of causation needs to be employed ..."
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Cited by 179 (10 self)
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This paper considers the problem of specifying the effects of actions in the situation calculus using domain constraints. We argue that normal state constraints that refer to only the truth values of fluents are not strong enough for this purpose, and that a notion of causation needs to be employed explicitly. Technically, we introduce a new ternary predicate Caused into the situation calculus: Caused(p; v; s) if the proposition p is caused (by something unspecified) to have the truth value v in the state s. Using this predicate, we can represent not only actiontriggered causal statements such as that the action load causes the gun to be loaded, but also fluenttriggered ones such as that the fact that the switch is in the up position causes the lamp to be on. The former is convenient for representing the direct effects of actions, and the latter the indirect effects. 1 Introduction We consider the problem of formalizing the effects of actions in the situation calculus [ McCarthy a...
The Independent Choice Logic for modelling multiple agents under uncertainty
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1997
"... Inspired by game theory representations, Bayesian networks, influence diagrams, structured Markov decision process models, logic programming, and work in dynamical systems, the independent choice logic (ICL) is a semantic framework that allows for independent choices (made by various agents, includi ..."
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Cited by 150 (9 self)
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Inspired by game theory representations, Bayesian networks, influence diagrams, structured Markov decision process models, logic programming, and work in dynamical systems, the independent choice logic (ICL) is a semantic framework that allows for independent choices (made by various agents, including nature) and a logic program that gives the consequence of choices. This representation can be used as a specification for agents that act in a world, make observations of that world and have memory, as well as a modelling tool for dynamic environments with uncertainty. The rules specify the consequences of an action, what can be sensed and the utility of outcomes. This paper presents a possibleworlds semantics for ICL, and shows how to embed influence diagrams, structured Markov decision processes, and both the strategic (normal) form and extensive (gametree) form of games within the Thanks to Craig Boutilier and Holger Hoos for detailed comments on this paper. This work was supporte...
BI as an Assertion Language for Mutable Data Structures
, 2000
"... Reynolds has developed a logic for reasoning about mutable data structures in which the pre and postconditions are written in an intuitionistic logic enriched with a spatial form of conjunction. We investigate the approach from the point of view of the logic BI of bunched implications of O'Hearn an ..."
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Cited by 149 (14 self)
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Reynolds has developed a logic for reasoning about mutable data structures in which the pre and postconditions are written in an intuitionistic logic enriched with a spatial form of conjunction. We investigate the approach from the point of view of the logic BI of bunched implications of O'Hearn and Pym. We begin by giving a model in which the law of the excluded middle holds, thus showing that the approach is compatible with classical logic. The relationship between the intuitionistic and classical versions of the system is established by a translation, analogous to a translation from intuitionistic logic into the modal logic S4. We also consider the question of completeness of the axioms. BI's spatial implication is used to express weakest preconditions for objectcomponent assignments, and an axiom for allocating a cons cell is shown to be complete under an interpretation of triples that allows a command to be applied to states with dangling pointers. We make this latter a feature, by incorporating an operation, and axiom, for disposing of memory. Finally, we describe a local character enjoyed by specifications in the logic, and show how this enables a class of frame axioms, which say what parts of the heap don't change, to be inferred automatically.
Symbolic Dynamic Programming for Firstorder MDPs
 In IJCAI
, 2001
"... We present a dynamic programming approach for the solution of firstorder Markov decisions processes. This technique uses an MDP whose dynamics is represented in a variant of the situation calculus allowing for stochastic actions. It produces a logical description of the optimal value function and p ..."
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Cited by 134 (4 self)
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We present a dynamic programming approach for the solution of firstorder Markov decisions processes. This technique uses an MDP whose dynamics is represented in a variant of the situation calculus allowing for stochastic actions. It produces a logical description of the optimal value function and policy by constructing a set of firstorder formulae that minimally partition state space according to distinctions made by the value function and policy. This is achieved through the use of an operation known as decisiontheoretic regression. In effect, our algorithm performs value iteration without explicit enumeration of either the state or action spaces of the MDP. This allows problems involving relational fluents and quantification to be solved without requiring explicit state space enumeration or conversion to propositional form. 1