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A Separator Theorem for Planar Graphs
, 1977
"... Let G be any nvertex planar graph. We prove that the vertices of G can be partitioned into three sets A, B, C such that no edge joins a vertex in A with a vertex in B, neither A nor B contains more than 2n/3 vertices, and C contains no more than 2& & vertices. We exhibit an algorithm which ..."
Abstract

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Let G be any nvertex planar graph. We prove that the vertices of G can be partitioned into three sets A, B, C such that no edge joins a vertex in A with a vertex in B, neither A nor B contains more than 2n/3 vertices, and C contains no more than 2& & vertices. We exhibit an algorithm which finds such a partition A, B, C in O(n) time.