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Speed Modulation in EnergyAware RealTime Systems
, 2005
"... This paper presents a general framework for analyzing and designing embedded systems with energy and timing requirements. A set of realistic assumptions is considered in the model in order to apply the results in practical realtime applications. For example, the processor is assumed to have as a set ..."
Abstract

Cited by 31 (6 self)
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This paper presents a general framework for analyzing and designing embedded systems with energy and timing requirements. A set of realistic assumptions is considered in the model in order to apply the results in practical realtime applications. For example, the processor is assumed to have as a set of discrete operating modes, each characterized by speed, power consumption. The transition delay between modes is considered. To take I/O operations into account, task computation times are modeled with a part that scales with the speed and a part having a fixed duration. Given a set of realtime tasks, the proposed method allows to compute the optimal sequence of voltage/speed changes that approximates the minimum continuous speed which guarantees the feasibility of the system. The analysis is performed both under fixed and dynamic priority assignments.
Optimal TwoLevels Speed Assignment for RealTime Systems
, 2006
"... Reducing energy consumption is one of the main concerns in the design and the implementation of embedded realtime systems. For this reason, the current generation of processors allows to vary voltage and operating frequency to balance computational speed versus energy consumption. This technique is ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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Reducing energy consumption is one of the main concerns in the design and the implementation of embedded realtime systems. For this reason, the current generation of processors allows to vary voltage and operating frequency to balance computational speed versus energy consumption. This technique is called Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS). When applying DVS to hard realtime systems, it is important to provide the worstcase computational requirement, otherwise a task may miss some timing constraint. However, the probability of a task executing for its worstcase execution time is very low. In this paper, we show how to exploit probabilistic information about the execution time of a task in order to reduce the energy consumed by the processor. Optimal speed assignments and transition points are found using a very general model for the processor. The model accounts for the processor idle power and for both the time and the energy overheads due to frequency transitions. We also show how these results can be applied to some significant cases.
Speed Modulation in EnergyAware RealTime Systems Enrico Bini
"... This paper presents a general framework for analyzing and designing embedded systems with energy and timing requirements. A set of realistic assumptions is considered in the model in order to apply the results in practical realtime applications. For example, the processor is assumed to have as a se ..."
Abstract
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This paper presents a general framework for analyzing and designing embedded systems with energy and timing requirements. A set of realistic assumptions is considered in the model in order to apply the results in practical realtime applications. For example, the processor is assumed to have as a set of discrete operating modes, each characterized by speed, power consumption. The transition delay between modes is considered. To take I/O operations into account, task computation times are modeled with a part that scales with the speed and a part having a fixed duration. Given a set of realtime tasks, the proposed method allows to compute the optimal sequence of voltage/speed changes that approximates the minimum continuous speed which guarantees the feasibility of the system. The analysis is performed both under fixed and dynamic priority assignments. 1.