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33
Probabilistic Approximation of Metric Spaces and its Algorithmic Applications
 In 37th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1996
"... The goal of approximating metric spaces by more simple metric spaces has led to the notion of graph spanners [PU89, PS89] and to lowdistortion embeddings in lowdimensional spaces [LLR94], having many algorithmic applications. This paper provides a novel technique for the analysis of randomized ..."
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Cited by 316 (29 self)
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The goal of approximating metric spaces by more simple metric spaces has led to the notion of graph spanners [PU89, PS89] and to lowdistortion embeddings in lowdimensional spaces [LLR94], having many algorithmic applications. This paper provides a novel technique for the analysis of randomized algorithms for optimization problems on metric spaces, by relating the randomized performance ratio for any metric space to the randomized performance ratio for a set of "simple" metric spaces. We define a notion of a set of metric spaces that probabilisticallyapproximates another metric space. We prove that any metric space can be probabilisticallyapproximated by hierarchically wellseparated trees (HST) with a polylogarithmic distortion. These metric spaces are "simple" as being: (1) tree metrics. (2) natural for applying a divideandconquer algorithmic approach. The technique presented is of particular interest in the context of online computation. A large number of online al...
Scheduling to Minimize Average Completion Time: Offline and Online Algorithms
, 1996
"... Timeindexed linear programming formulations have recently received a great deal of attention for their practical effectiveness in solving a number of singlemachine scheduling problems. We show that these formulations are also an important tool in the design of approximation algorithms with good wo ..."
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Cited by 194 (27 self)
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Timeindexed linear programming formulations have recently received a great deal of attention for their practical effectiveness in solving a number of singlemachine scheduling problems. We show that these formulations are also an important tool in the design of approximation algorithms with good worstcase performance guarantees. We give simple new rounding techniques to convert an optimal fractional solution into a feasible schedule for which we can prove a constantfactor performance guarantee, thereby giving the first theoretical evidence of the strength of these relaxations. Specifically, we consider the problem of minimizing the total weighted job completion time on a single machine subject to precedence constraints, and give a polynomialtime (4 + ffl)approximation algorithm, for any ffl ? 0; the best previously known guarantee for this problem was superlogarithmic. With somewhat larger constants, we also show how to extend this result to the case with release date constraints, ...
SchedulingLPs bear probabilities: Randomized approximations for minsum criteria
 In R. Burkard and G.J. Woeginger eds, ESA'97, LNCS 1284
, 1997
"... Abstract. In this paper, we provide a new class of randomized approximation algorithms for scheduling problems by directly interpreting solutions to socalled timeindexed LPs as probabilities. The most general model we consider is scheduling unrelated parallel machines with release dates (or even n ..."
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Cited by 28 (5 self)
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Abstract. In this paper, we provide a new class of randomized approximation algorithms for scheduling problems by directly interpreting solutions to socalled timeindexed LPs as probabilities. The most general model we consider is scheduling unrelated parallel machines with release dates (or even network scheduling) so as to minimize the average weighted completion time. The crucial idea for these multiple machine problems is not to use standard list scheduling but rather to assign jobs randomly to machines (with probabilities taken from an optimal LP solution) and to perform list scheduling on each of them. For the general model, we give a (2+ e)approximation algorithm. The best previously known approximation algorithm has a performance guarantee of 16/3 [HSW96]. Moreover, our algorithm also improves upon the best previously known approximation algorithms for the special case of identical parallel machine scheduling (performance guarantee (2.89 + e) in general [CPS+96] and 2.85 for the average completion time [CMNS97], respectively). A perhaps surprising implication for identical parallel machines is that jobs are randomly assigned to machines, in which each machine is equally likely. In addition, in this case the algorithm has running time O(nlogn) and performance guarantee 2. The same algorithm also is a 2approximation for the corresponding preemptive scheduling problem on identical parallel machines. Finally, the results for identical parallel machine scheduling apply to both the offline and the online settings with no difference in performance guarantees. In the online setting, we are scheduling jobs that continually arrive to be processed and, for each time t, we must construct the schedule until time t without any knowledge of the jobs that will arrive afterwards. 1
On Page Migration and Other Relaxed Task Systems
, 1997
"... This paper is concerned with the page migration (or file migration) problem [BS89] as part of a large class of online problems. The page migration problem deals with the management of pages residing in a network of processors. In the classical problem there is only one copy of each page which is ..."
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Cited by 28 (4 self)
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This paper is concerned with the page migration (or file migration) problem [BS89] as part of a large class of online problems. The page migration problem deals with the management of pages residing in a network of processors. In the classical problem there is only one copy of each page which is accessed by different processors over time. The page is allowed to be migrated between processors. However a migration incurs higher communication cost than an access (proportionally to the page size). The problem is that of deciding when and where to migrate the page in order to lower access costs. A more general setting is the kpage migration where we wish to maintain k copies of the page. The page migration problems are concerned with a dilemma common to many online problems: determining when is it beneficial to make configuration changes. We deal with the relaxed task systems model which captures a large class of problems of this type, that can be described as the generalizati...
Scheduling Unrelated Machines by Randomized Rounding
 SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics
, 1999
"... In this paper, we provide a new class of randomized approximation algorithms for parallel machine scheduling problems. The most general model we consider is scheduling unrelated machines with release dates (or even network scheduling) so as to minimize the average weighted completion time. We introd ..."
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Cited by 24 (3 self)
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In this paper, we provide a new class of randomized approximation algorithms for parallel machine scheduling problems. The most general model we consider is scheduling unrelated machines with release dates (or even network scheduling) so as to minimize the average weighted completion time. We introduce an LP relaxation in timeindexed variables for this problem. The crucial idea to derive approximation results is not to use standard list scheduling, but rather to assign jobs randomly to machines (by interpreting LP solutions as probabilities), and to perform list scheduling on each of them. Our main result is a (2 + e)approximation algorithm for this general model which improves upon performance guarantee 16=3 due to Hall, Shmoys, and Wein. In the absence of nontrivial release dates, we get a (3=2 + e)approximation. At the same time we prove corresponding bounds on the quality of the LP relaxation. A perhaps surprising implication for identical parallel machines is that jobs are ra...
Lower Bounds on the Competitive Ratio for Mobile User Tracking and Distributed Job Scheduling
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1992
"... 1 We prove a lower bound of Ω(log n / log log n) on the competitive ratio of any (deterministic or randomized) distributed algorithm for solving the mobile user problem introduced by Awerbuch and Peleg [5], on certain networks of n processors. Our lower bound holds for various networks, including th ..."
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Cited by 24 (4 self)
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1 We prove a lower bound of Ω(log n / log log n) on the competitive ratio of any (deterministic or randomized) distributed algorithm for solving the mobile user problem introduced by Awerbuch and Peleg [5], on certain networks of n processors. Our lower bound holds for various networks, including the hypercube, any network with sufficiently large girth, and any highly expanding graph. A similar Ω(log n / log log n) lower bound is proved for the competitive ratio of the maximum job delay of any distributed algorithm for solving the distributed scheduling problem of Awerbuch, Kutten and Peleg [4] on any of these networks. The proofs combine combinatorial techniques with tools from linear algebra and harmonic analysis and apply, in particular, a generalization of the vertex isoperimetric problem on the hypercube, which may be of independent interest. 2 Footnotes for title page
ContentionAware Metrics for Distributed Algorithms: Comparison of Atomic Broadcast Algorithms
 in Proc. 9th IEEE Int’l Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (IC3N 2000
, 2000
"... Resource contention is widely recognized as having a major impact on the performance of distributed algorithms. Nevertheless, the metrics that are commonly used to predict their performance take little or no account of contention. In this paper, we define two performance metrics for distributed algo ..."
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Cited by 23 (14 self)
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Resource contention is widely recognized as having a major impact on the performance of distributed algorithms. Nevertheless, the metrics that are commonly used to predict their performance take little or no account of contention. In this paper, we define two performance metrics for distributed algorithms that account for network contention as well as CPU contention. We then illustrate the use of these metrics by comparing four Atomic Broadcast algorithms, and show that our metrics allow for a deeper understanding of performance issues than conventional metrics. 1 Introduction Performance prediction and evaluation are a central part of every scientific and engineering activity, including the construction of distributed applications. Engineers of distributed systems rely heavily on various performance evaluation techniques and have developed the necessary techniques for this activity. In contrast, algorithm designers invest considerable effort in proving the correctness of their algor...
Convex Quadratic and Semidefinite Programming Relaxations in Scheduling
 Journal of the ACM
, 1999
"... We consider the problem of scheduling unrelated parallel machines subject to release dates so as to minimize the total weighted completion time of jobs. The main contribution of this paper is a provably good convex quadratic programming relaxation of strongly polynomial size for this problem. The be ..."
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Cited by 23 (1 self)
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We consider the problem of scheduling unrelated parallel machines subject to release dates so as to minimize the total weighted completion time of jobs. The main contribution of this paper is a provably good convex quadratic programming relaxation of strongly polynomial size for this problem. The best previously known approximation algorithms are based on LP relaxations in time or intervalindexed variables. Those LP relaxations, however, suffer from a huge number of variables. As a result of the convex quadratic programming approach we can give a very simple and easy to analyze randomized 2approximation algorithm which can be further improved to performance guarantee 3#2 in the absence of release dates. We also consider preemptive scheduling problems and derive approximation algorithms and results on the power of preemption which improve upon the best previously known results for these settings. Finally, for the special case of two machines we introduce a more sophisticated semidefinite programming relaxation and apply the random hyperplane technique introduced by Goemans and Williamson for the MAXCUT problem
Early Detection of Message Forwarding Faults
 SIAM J. Comput
, 2000
"... In most communication networks, pairs of processors communicate by sending messages over a path connecting them. We present communication e cient protocols that quickly detect and locate any failure along the path. Whenever there is excessive delay inforwarding messages along the path, the protocols ..."
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Cited by 22 (2 self)
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In most communication networks, pairs of processors communicate by sending messages over a path connecting them. We present communication e cient protocols that quickly detect and locate any failure along the path. Whenever there is excessive delay inforwarding messages along the path, the protocols detect a failure (even when the delay is caused by maliciouslyprogrammed processors). The protocols ensure optimal time for either message delivery or failure detection. We observe that the actual delivery time of a message over a link is usually much smaller than the apriori known upper bound D on that delivery time. The main contribution of the paper is the way tomodelandtakeadvantage of this observation. We introduce the notion of asynchronously early determinating protocols, as well as protocols that are asynchronously early terminating, i.e., time optimal in both worse case and typical cases. More precisely, we present a time complexity measure according to which one evaluates protocols both in terms of D and.Weobserve that asynchronously early termination is a form of competitiveness. The protocols presented here are asynchorously early terminating since they are time optimal both in terms of D and of. Previous communication e cient solutions were slow in the case where D. Weobserve that this is the most typical case. Preliminary reports of parts of the work reported here appeared in the proceedings of the ICCC 88
Task Scheduling in Networks
, 1994
"... Scheduling a set of tasks on a set of machines so as to yield an efficient schedule is a basic problem in computer science and operations research. Most of the research on this problem incorporates the potentially unrealistic assumption that communication between the different machines is instantane ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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Scheduling a set of tasks on a set of machines so as to yield an efficient schedule is a basic problem in computer science and operations research. Most of the research on this problem incorporates the potentially unrealistic assumption that communication between the different machines is instantaneous. In this paper we remove this assumption and study the problem of network scheduling, where each job originates at some node of a network, and in order to be processed at another node must take the time to travel through the network to that node. Our main contribution is to give approximation algorithms and hardness proofs for fully general forms of the fundamental problems in network scheduling. We consider two basic scheduling objectives: minimizing the makespan, and minimizing the average completion time. For the makespan we prove small constant factor hardnesstoapproximate and approximation results. For the average completion time, we give a logsquared approximation algorithm for...