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37
Minimum energy mobile wireless networks revisited
 In IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC
, 2001
"... Energy conservation is a critical issue in designing wireless ad hoc networks, as the nodes are powered by batteries only. Given a set of wireless network nodes, the directed weighted transmission graph Gt has an edge uv if and only if node v is in the transmission range of node u and the weight of ..."
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Cited by 118 (8 self)
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Energy conservation is a critical issue in designing wireless ad hoc networks, as the nodes are powered by batteries only. Given a set of wireless network nodes, the directed weighted transmission graph Gt has an edge uv if and only if node v is in the transmission range of node u and the weight of uv is typically defined as II,,vll + c for a constant 2 <_ t ~ < 5 and c> O. The minimum power topology Gm is the smallest subgraph of Gt that contains the shortest paths between all pairs of nodes, i.e., the union of all shortest paths. In this paper, we described a distributed positionbased networking protocol to construct an enclosure graph G~, which is an approximation of Gin. The time complexity of each node u is O(min(dG ~ (u)dG ~ (u), dG ~ (u) log dG ~ (u))), where dc(u) is the degree of node u in a graph G. The space required at each node to compute the minimum power topology is O(dG ~ (u)). This improves the previous result that computes Gm in O(dG, (u) a) time using O(dGt(U) 2) spaces. We also show that the average degree dG,(u) is usually a constant, which is at most 6. Our result is first developed for stationary network and then extended to mobile networks. I.
Coverage in Wireless Adhoc Sensor Networks
, 2002
"... Sensor networks pose a number of challenging conceptual and optimization problems such as location, deployment, and tracking [1]. One of the fundamental problems in sensor networks is the calculation of the coverage. In [1], it is assumed that the sensor has the uniform sensing ability. In this pape ..."
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Cited by 113 (9 self)
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Sensor networks pose a number of challenging conceptual and optimization problems such as location, deployment, and tracking [1]. One of the fundamental problems in sensor networks is the calculation of the coverage. In [1], it is assumed that the sensor has the uniform sensing ability. In this paper, we give efficient distributed algorithms to optimally solve the bestcoverage problem raised in [1]. Here, we consider the sensing model: the sensing ability diminishes as the distance increases. As energy conservation is a major concern in wireless (or sensor) networks, we also consider how to find an optimum bestcoverage path with the least energy consumption. We also consider how to find an optimum bestcoveragepath that travels a small distance. In addition, we justify the correctness of the method proposed in [1] that uses the Delaunay triangulation to solve the best coverage problem. Moreover, we show that the search space of the best coverage problem can be confined to the relative neighborhood graph, which can be constructed locally.
Atpc: Adaptive transmission power control for wireless sensor networks
 In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys
, 2006
"... Extensive empirical studies presented in this paper confirm that the quality of radio communication between low power sensor devices varies significantly with time and environment. This phenomenon indicates that the previous topology control solutions, which use static transmission power, transmissi ..."
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Cited by 83 (9 self)
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Extensive empirical studies presented in this paper confirm that the quality of radio communication between low power sensor devices varies significantly with time and environment. This phenomenon indicates that the previous topology control solutions, which use static transmission power, transmission range, and link quality, might not be effective in the physical world. To address this issue, online transmission power control that adapts to external changes is necessary. This paper presents ATPC, a lightweight algorithm of Adaptive Transmission Power Control for wireless sensor networks. In ATPC, each node builds a model for each of its neighbors, describing the correlation between transmission power and link quality. With this model, we employ a feedbackbased transmission power control algorithm to dynamically maintain individual link quality over time. The intellectual contribution of this work lies in a novel pairwise transmission power control, which is significantly different from existing nodelevel or networklevel power control methods. Also different from most existing simulation work, the ATPC design is guided by extensive field experiments of link quality dynamics at various locations and over a long period of time. The results from the realworld experiments demonstrate that 1) with pairwise adjustment, ATPC achieves more energy savings with a finer tuning capability and 2) with online control, ATPC is robust even with environmental changes over time.
Localized construction of bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks
 In DIALMPOMC
, 2003
"... We propose a novel localized algorithm that constructs a bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks modeled by unit disk graph (UDG). Every node only has to know its 2hop neighbors to find the edges in this new structure. Our method applies the Yao structure on the local Delauna ..."
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Cited by 69 (8 self)
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We propose a novel localized algorithm that constructs a bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks modeled by unit disk graph (UDG). Every node only has to know its 2hop neighbors to find the edges in this new structure. Our method applies the Yao structure on the local Delaunay graph [21] in an ordering that are computed locally. This new structure has the following attractive properties: (1) it is a planar graph; (2) its node degree is bounded from above by a positive constant 19 + ⌈ 2π α ⌉; (3) it is a tspanner (given any two nodes u and v, there is a path connecting them in the structure such that its length is no more than t ≤ max { π α,πsin 2 2 +1}·Cdel times of the shortest path in UDG); (4) it can be constructed locally and is easy to maintain when the nodes move around; (5) moreover, we show that the total communication cost is O(n), where n is the number of wireless nodes, and the computation cost of each node is at most O(d log d), where d is its 2hop neighbors in the original unit disk graph. Here Cdel is the spanning ratio of the Delaunay triangulation, which is at most 4 √ 3 9 π. And the adjustable parameter α satisfies 0 <α<π/3. In addition, experiments are conducted to show this topology is efficient in practice, compared with other wellknown topologies used in wireless ad hoc networks. Previously, only centralized method [5] of constructing bounded degree planar spanner is known, with degree bound 27 and spanning ratio t ≃ 10.02. The distributed implementation of their centralized method takes O(n 2) communications in the worst case. No localized methods were known previously for constructing bounded degree planar spanner.
Geometric Spanners for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
 IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
, 2003
"... We propose a new geometric spanner for static wireless ad hoc networks, which can be constructed efficiently in a localized manner. It integrates the connected dominating set and the local Delaunay graph to form a backbone of the wireless network. ..."
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Cited by 64 (16 self)
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We propose a new geometric spanner for static wireless ad hoc networks, which can be constructed efficiently in a localized manner. It integrates the connected dominating set and the local Delaunay graph to form a backbone of the wireless network.
Fault Tolerant Deployment and Topology Control in Wireless Networks
 In Proceedings of the Fourth ACM Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc
, 2003
"... This paper investigate fault tolerance for wireless ad hoc networks. We consider a largescale of wireless networks whose nodes are distributed randomly in a unitarea square region. Given n wireless nodes V , each with transmission range rn , the wireless networks are often modeled by graph G(V,rn ..."
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Cited by 51 (2 self)
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This paper investigate fault tolerance for wireless ad hoc networks. We consider a largescale of wireless networks whose nodes are distributed randomly in a unitarea square region. Given n wireless nodes V , each with transmission range rn , the wireless networks are often modeled by graph G(V,rn ) in which two nodes are connected if their Euclidean distance is no more than rn .
Localized Delaunay Triangulation with Application in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
, 2003
"... Several localized routing protocols guarantee the delivery of the packets when the underlying network topology is a planar graph. Typically, relative neighborhood graph (RNG) or Gabriel graph (GG) is used as such planar structure. However, it is wellknown that the spanning ratios of these two grap ..."
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Cited by 49 (8 self)
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Several localized routing protocols guarantee the delivery of the packets when the underlying network topology is a planar graph. Typically, relative neighborhood graph (RNG) or Gabriel graph (GG) is used as such planar structure. However, it is wellknown that the spanning ratios of these two graphs are not bounded by any constant (even for uniform randomly distributed points). Bose et al. [11] recently developed a localized routing protocol that guarantees that the distance traveled by the packets is within a constant factor of the minimum if Delaunay triangulation of all wireless nodes is used, in addition, to guarantee the delivery of the packets. However, it is expensive to construct the Delaunay triangulation in a distributed manner. Given a set of wireless nodes, we model the network as a unitdisk graph (UDG), in which a link uv exists only if the distance kuvk is at most the maximum transmission range. In this paper, we present a novel localized networking protocol that constructs a planar 2.5spanner of UDG, called the localized Delaunay triangulation (LDEL), as network topology. It contains all edges that are both in the unitdisk graph and the Delaunay triangulation of all nodes. The total communication cost of our networking protocol is Oðn log nÞ bits, which is within a constant factor of the optimum to construct any structure in a distributed manner. Our experiments show that the delivery rates of some of the existing localized routing protocols are increased when localized Delaunay triangulation is used instead of several previously proposed topologies. Our simulations also show that the traveled distance of the packets is significantly less when the FACE routing algorithm is applied on LDEL, rather than applied on GG.
Localized Topology Control for Heterogeneous Wireless Adhoc Networks
"... We study topology control in heterogeneous wireless ad hoc networks, where mobile hosts may have different maximum transmission powers and two nodes are connected iff they are within the maximum transmission range of each other. We present several strategies that all wireless nodes selfmaintain sp ..."
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Cited by 46 (8 self)
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We study topology control in heterogeneous wireless ad hoc networks, where mobile hosts may have different maximum transmission powers and two nodes are connected iff they are within the maximum transmission range of each other. We present several strategies that all wireless nodes selfmaintain sparse and power efficient topologies in heterogeneous network environment with low communication cost. The first structure is sparse and can be used for broadcasting. While the second structure keeps the minimum power consumption path, and the third structure is a length and power spanner with a bounded degree. Both the second and third structures are power efficient and can be used for unicast. Here a structure is power efficient if the total power consumption of the least cost path connecting any two nodes in it is no more than a small constant factor of that in the original heterogeneous communication graph. All our methods use at most O(n) total messages, where each message has O(log n) bits.
Programming Wireless Sensor Networks: Fundamental Concepts and StateoftheArt
"... Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are attracting great interest in a number of application domains concerned with monitoring and control of physical phenomena, as they enable dense and untethered deployments at low cost and with unprecedented flexibility. However, application development is still one ..."
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Cited by 29 (6 self)
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are attracting great interest in a number of application domains concerned with monitoring and control of physical phenomena, as they enable dense and untethered deployments at low cost and with unprecedented flexibility. However, application development is still one of the main hurdles to a wide adoption of WSN technology. In current realworld WSN deployments, programming is typically carried out very close to the operating system, therefore requiring the programmer to focus on lowlevel system issues. This not only shifts the focus of the programmer away from the application logic, but also requires a technical background that is rarely found among application domain experts. The need for appropriate highlevel programming abstractions, capable to simplify the programming chore without sacrificing efficiency, has been long recognized and several solutions have been hitherto proposed, which differ along many dimensions. In this paper, we survey the stateoftheart in programming approaches for WSNs. We begin by presenting a taxonomy of WSN applications, to identify the fundamental requirements programming platforms must deal with. Then, we introduce a taxonomy of WSN programming approaches that captures the fundamental differences among existing solutions, and constitutes the core contribution of this paper. Our presentation style relies on concrete examples and code snippets taken from programming platforms representative of the taxonomy dimensions being discussed. We use the taxonomy to provide an exhaustive classification of existing approaches. Moreover, we also map existing approaches back to the application requirements, therefore providing not only a complete view of the stateoftheart, but also useful insights for selecting the programming abstraction most appropriate to the application at hand.
On Local Algorithms for Topology Control and Routing in Ad Hoc Networks
 In Proc. SPAA
, 2003
"... An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any fixed infrastructure. Indeed, an important task of an ad hoc network is to determine an appropriate topology over which highlevel routing protocols are implemented. Furthermore, since the u ..."
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Cited by 28 (1 self)
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An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any fixed infrastructure. Indeed, an important task of an ad hoc network is to determine an appropriate topology over which highlevel routing protocols are implemented. Furthermore, since the underlying topology may change with time, we need to design routing algorithms that effectively react to dynamically changing network conditions. This paper studies algorithms...