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101
Design and Analysis of an MSTBased Topology Control Algorithm
, 2002
"... In this paper, we present a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) based topology control algorithm, called Local Minimum Spanning Tree (LMST), for wireless multihop networks. In this algorithm, each node builds its local minimum spanning tree independently and only keeps ontree nodes that are onehop away a ..."
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Cited by 194 (4 self)
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In this paper, we present a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) based topology control algorithm, called Local Minimum Spanning Tree (LMST), for wireless multihop networks. In this algorithm, each node builds its local minimum spanning tree independently and only keeps ontree nodes that are onehop away as its neighbors in the final topology. We analytically prove several important properties of LMST: (1) the topology derived under LMST preserves the network connectivity; (2) the node degree of any node in the resulting topology is bounded by 6; and (3) the topology can be transformed into one with bidirectional links (without impairing the network connectivity) after removal of all unidirectional links. These results are corroborated in the simulation study.
Topology Control and Routing in Ad hoc Networks: A Survey
 SIGACT News
, 2002
"... this article, we review some of the characteristic features of ad hoc networks, formulate problems and survey research work done in the area. We focus on two basic problem domains: topology control, the problem of computing and maintaining a connected topology among the network nodes, and routing. T ..."
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Cited by 115 (0 self)
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this article, we review some of the characteristic features of ad hoc networks, formulate problems and survey research work done in the area. We focus on two basic problem domains: topology control, the problem of computing and maintaining a connected topology among the network nodes, and routing. This article is not intended to be a comprehensive survey on ad hoc networking. The choice of the problems discussed in this article are somewhat biased by the research interests of the author
The Critical Transmitting Range for Connectivity in Sparse Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
, 2003
"... In this paper, we analyze the critical transmitting range for connectivity in wireless ad hoc networks. More specifically, we consider the following problem: assume n nodes, each capable of communicating with nodes within a radius of r, are randomly and uniformly distributed in a ddimensional re ..."
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Cited by 102 (12 self)
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In this paper, we analyze the critical transmitting range for connectivity in wireless ad hoc networks. More specifically, we consider the following problem: assume n nodes, each capable of communicating with nodes within a radius of r, are randomly and uniformly distributed in a ddimensional region with a side of length l; how large must the transmitting range r be to ensure that the resulting network is connected with high probability? First, we consider this problem for stationary networks, and we provide tight upper and lower bounds on the critical transmitting range for onedimensional networks, and nontight bounds for two and threedimensional networks. Due to the presence of the geometric parameter l in the model, our results can be applied to dense as well as sparse ad hoc networks, contrary to existing theoretical results that apply only to dense networks. We also investigate several related questions through extensive simulations. First, we evaluate the relationship between the critical transmitting range and the minimum transmitting range that ensures formation of a connected component containing a large fraction (e.g. 90%) of the nodes. Then, we consider the mobile version of the
Algorithmic Aspects of Topology Control Problems for Ad hoc Networks
, 2002
"... Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to the nodes of an ad~hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing th ..."
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Cited by 100 (6 self)
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Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to the nodes of an ad~hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm is presented for minimizing maximum power for a class of graph properties called monotone properties. The difficulty of generalizing the approach to properties that are not monotone is discussed. Problems involving the minimization of total power are known to be NPcomplete even for simple graph properties. A general approach that leads to an approximation algorithm for minimizing the total power for some monotone properties is presented. Using this approach, a new approximation algorithm for the problem of minimizing the total power for obtaining a 2nodeconnected graph is obtained. It is shown that this algorithm provides a constant performance guarantee. Experimental results from an implementation of the approximation algorithm are also presented.
Joint mobility and routing for lifetime elongation in wireless sensor networks
 In Proceedijngs of IEEE INFOCOM
"... Abstract — Although many energy efficient/conserving routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks, the concentration of data traffic towards a small number of base stations remains a major threat to the network lifetime. The main reason is that the sensor nodes located near a ba ..."
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Cited by 93 (5 self)
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Abstract — Although many energy efficient/conserving routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks, the concentration of data traffic towards a small number of base stations remains a major threat to the network lifetime. The main reason is that the sensor nodes located near a base station have to relay data for a large part of the network and thus deplete their batteries very quickly. The solution we propose in this paper suggests that the base station be mobile; in this way, the nodes located close to it change over time. Data collection protocols can then be optimized by taking both base station mobility and multihop routing into account. We first study the former, and conclude that the best mobility strategy consists in following the periphery of the network (we assume that the sensors are deployed within a circle). We then consider jointly mobility and routing algorithms in this case, and show that a better routing strategy uses a combination of round routes and short paths. We provide a detailed analytical model for each of our statements, and corroborate it with simulation results. We show that the obtained improvement in terms of network lifetime is in the order of 500%.
Opportunitybased topology control in wireless sensor networks
 in ICDCS
, 2008
"... Topology control is an effective method to improve the energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Traditional approaches are based on the assumption that a pair of nodes is either “connected ” or “disconnected”. These approaches are called connectivitybased topology control. In real envi ..."
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Cited by 90 (14 self)
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Topology control is an effective method to improve the energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Traditional approaches are based on the assumption that a pair of nodes is either “connected ” or “disconnected”. These approaches are called connectivitybased topology control. In real environments however, there are many intermittently connected wireless links called lossy links. Taking a succeeded lossy link as an advantage, we are able to construct more energyefficient topologies. Towards this end, we propose a novel opportunitybased topology control. We show that opportunitybased topology control is a problem of NPhard. To address this problem in a practical way, we design a fully distributed algorithm called CONREAP based on reliability theory. We prove that CONREAP has a guaranteed performance. The worst running time is O(E) where E is the link set of the original topology, and the space requirement for individual nodes is O(d) where d is the node degree. To evaluate the performance of CONREAP, we design and implement a prototype system consisting of 50 Berkeley Mica2 motes. We also conducted comprehensive simulations. Experimental results show that compared with the connectivitybased topology control algorithms, CONREAP can improve the energy efficiency of a network up to 6 times. 1
Localized construction of bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks
 In DIALMPOMC
, 2003
"... We propose a novel localized algorithm that constructs a bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks modeled by unit disk graph (UDG). Every node only has to know its 2hop neighbors to find the edges in this new structure. Our method applies the Yao structure on the local Delauna ..."
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Cited by 70 (8 self)
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We propose a novel localized algorithm that constructs a bounded degree and planar spanner for wireless ad hoc networks modeled by unit disk graph (UDG). Every node only has to know its 2hop neighbors to find the edges in this new structure. Our method applies the Yao structure on the local Delaunay graph [21] in an ordering that are computed locally. This new structure has the following attractive properties: (1) it is a planar graph; (2) its node degree is bounded from above by a positive constant 19 + ⌈ 2π α ⌉; (3) it is a tspanner (given any two nodes u and v, there is a path connecting them in the structure such that its length is no more than t ≤ max { π α,πsin 2 2 +1}·Cdel times of the shortest path in UDG); (4) it can be constructed locally and is easy to maintain when the nodes move around; (5) moreover, we show that the total communication cost is O(n), where n is the number of wireless nodes, and the computation cost of each node is at most O(d log d), where d is its 2hop neighbors in the original unit disk graph. Here Cdel is the spanning ratio of the Delaunay triangulation, which is at most 4 √ 3 9 π. And the adjustable parameter α satisfies 0 <α<π/3. In addition, experiments are conducted to show this topology is efficient in practice, compared with other wellknown topologies used in wireless ad hoc networks. Previously, only centralized method [5] of constructing bounded degree planar spanner is known, with degree bound 27 and spanning ratio t ≃ 10.02. The distributed implementation of their centralized method takes O(n 2) communications in the worst case. No localized methods were known previously for constructing bounded degree planar spanner.
RealTime communication and coordination in embedded sensor networks
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
, 2003
"... Sensor networks can be considered distributed computing platforms with many severe constraints including limited CPU speed, memory size, power, and bandwidth. Individual nodes in sensor networks are typically unreliable and the network topology dynamically changes, possibly frequently. Sensor networ ..."
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Cited by 66 (9 self)
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Sensor networks can be considered distributed computing platforms with many severe constraints including limited CPU speed, memory size, power, and bandwidth. Individual nodes in sensor networks are typically unreliable and the network topology dynamically changes, possibly frequently. Sensor networks can also be considered a form of ad hoc network. However, here also many constraints in sensor networks are different or more severe. Sensor networks also differ because of their tight interaction with the physical environment via sensors and actuators. Due to all of these differences many solutions developed for general distributed computing platforms and for ad hoc networks cannot be applied to sensor networks. Many new and exciting research challenges exist. This paper discusses the state of the art and presents the key research challenges to be solved, some with initial solutions or approaches.
XTC: A Practical Topology Control Algorithm for AdHoc Networks
 In 4th International Workshop on Algorithms for Wireless, Mobile, Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (WMAN
, 2003
"... The XTC adhoc network topology control algorithm introduced in this paper shows three main advantages over previously proposed algorithms. First, it is extremely simple and strictly local. Second, it does not assume the network graph to be a Unit Disk Graph; XTC proves correct also on general weigh ..."
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Cited by 66 (9 self)
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The XTC adhoc network topology control algorithm introduced in this paper shows three main advantages over previously proposed algorithms. First, it is extremely simple and strictly local. Second, it does not assume the network graph to be a Unit Disk Graph; XTC proves correct also on general weighted network graphs. Third, the algorithm does not require availability of node position information. Instead, XTC operates with a general notion of order over the neighbors' link qualities. In the special case of the network graph being a Unit Disk Graph, the resulting topology proves to have bounded degree, to be a planar graph, andon averagecase graphsto be a good spanner.
The kNEIGH Protocol for Symmetric Topology Control in Ad Hoc Networks
, 2003
"... Topology control, wherein nodes adjust their transmitting ranges to conserve energy, is an important feature in wireless ad hoc networks. In this paper, we present a topology control protocol that is fully distributed, asynchronous, and localized. This protocol, referred to as the kNEIGH protocol, ..."
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Cited by 65 (0 self)
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Topology control, wherein nodes adjust their transmitting ranges to conserve energy, is an important feature in wireless ad hoc networks. In this paper, we present a topology control protocol that is fully distributed, asynchronous, and localized. This protocol, referred to as the kNEIGH protocol, maintains the number of neighbors of every node equal to or slightly below a specific value k. Furthermore, the protocol ensures that the resulting communication graph is symmetric, thereby easing the operation of higher protocol layers. To evaluate the performance of the protocol, the value of k that ensures a connected communication graph with high probability is evaluated. It is also shown that, with n nodes in the network, the protocol terminates on every node after exactly 2n messages total and within strictly bounded time. Finally, extensive simulations are carried out, which show that the kNEIGH protocol is about 20% more energyefficient than the most widelystudied existing protocol.