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108
Short Proofs are Narrow  Resolution made Simple
 Journal of the ACM
, 2000
"... The width of a Resolution proof is de ned to be the maximal number of literals in any clause of the proof. In this paper we relate proof width to proof length (=size), in both general Resolution, and its treelike variant. The following consequences of these relations reveal width as a crucial " ..."
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Cited by 187 (15 self)
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The width of a Resolution proof is de ned to be the maximal number of literals in any clause of the proof. In this paper we relate proof width to proof length (=size), in both general Resolution, and its treelike variant. The following consequences of these relations reveal width as a crucial "resource" of Resolution proofs. In one direction, the relations allow us to give simple, unified proofs for almost all known exponential lower bounds on size of resolution proofs, as well as several interesting new ones. They all follow from width lower bounds, and we show how these follow from natural expansion property of clauses of the input tautology. In the other direction, the widthsize relations naturally suggest a simple dynamic programming procedure for automated theorem proving  one which simply searches for small width proofs. This relation guarantees that the running time (and thus the size of the produced proof) is at most quasipolynomial in the smallest treelike proof. This algorithm is never much worse than any of the recursive automated provers (such as DLL) used in practice. In contrast, we present a family of tautologies on which it is exponentially faster.
Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem: A Survey
 DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... . The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, compute ..."
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Cited by 126 (3 self)
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. The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, computer architecture design, and computer network design. Traditional methods treat SAT as a discrete, constrained decision problem. In recent years, many optimization methods, parallel algorithms, and practical techniques have been developed for solving SAT. In this survey, we present a general framework (an algorithm space) that integrates existing SAT algorithms into a unified perspective. We describe sequential and parallel SAT algorithms including variable splitting, resolution, local search, global optimization, mathematical programming, and practical SAT algorithms. We give performance evaluation of some existing SAT algorithms. Finally, we provide a set of practical applications of the sat...
EXPTIME tableaux for ALC
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 2000
"... The last years have seen two major advances in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. First, many interesting problems (ranging from Semistructured Data to Linguistics) were shown to be expressible in logics whose main deductive problems are EXPTIMEcomplete. Second, experiments in automated reaso ..."
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Cited by 51 (3 self)
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The last years have seen two major advances in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. First, many interesting problems (ranging from Semistructured Data to Linguistics) were shown to be expressible in logics whose main deductive problems are EXPTIMEcomplete. Second, experiments in automated reasoning have substantially broadened the meaning of “practical tractability”. Instances of realistic size for PSPACEcomplete problems are now within reach for implemented systems. Still, there is a gap between the reasoning services needed by the expressive logics mentioned above and those provided by the current systems. Indeed, the algorithms based on treeautomata, which are used to prove EXPTIMEcompleteness, require exponential time and space even in simple cases. On the other hand, current algorithms based on tableau methods can take advantage of such cases, but require double exponential time in the worst case. We propose a tableau calculus for the description logic ALC for checking the satisfiability of a concept with respect to a TBox with general axioms, and transform it into the first simple tableaubased decision procedure working in single exponential time. To guarantee the ease of implementation, we also discuss the effects that optimizations (propositional backjumping, simplification, semantic branching, etc.) might have on our complexity result, and introduce a few optimizations ourselves.
NearOptimal Separation of Treelike and General Resolution
 Electronic Colloquium in Computation Complexity
, 2000
"... We present the best known separation between treelike and general resolution, improving on the recent exp(n ) separation of [BEGJ98]. ..."
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Cited by 48 (3 self)
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We present the best known separation between treelike and general resolution, improving on the recent exp(n ) separation of [BEGJ98].
Pseudorandom Generators Hard for kDNF Resolution and Polynomial Calculus Resolution
, 2003
"... A pseudorandom generator G n : f0; 1g is hard for a propositional proof system P if (roughly speaking) P can not ef ciently prove the statement G n (x 1 ; : : : ; x n ) 6= b for any string b 2 . We present a function (m 2 ) generator which is hard for Res( log n); here Res(k) is the ..."
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Cited by 42 (4 self)
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A pseudorandom generator G n : f0; 1g is hard for a propositional proof system P if (roughly speaking) P can not ef ciently prove the statement G n (x 1 ; : : : ; x n ) 6= b for any string b 2 . We present a function (m 2 ) generator which is hard for Res( log n); here Res(k) is the propositional proof system that extends Resolution by allowing kDNFs instead of clauses.
The Propositional Formula Checker HeerHugo
 JOURNAL OF AUTOMATED REASONING
, 1999
"... HeerHugo is a propositional formula checker that determines whether a given formula is satisfiable or not. Its main ingredient is the branch/merge rule, that is inspired by an algorithm proposed by Stallmarck, which is protected by a software patent. The algorithm can be interpreted as a breadth f ..."
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Cited by 41 (0 self)
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HeerHugo is a propositional formula checker that determines whether a given formula is satisfiable or not. Its main ingredient is the branch/merge rule, that is inspired by an algorithm proposed by Stallmarck, which is protected by a software patent. The algorithm can be interpreted as a breadth first search algorithm. HeerHugo differs substantially from Stallmarck's algorithm, as it operates on formulas in conjunctive normal form and it is enhanced with many logical rules including unit resolution, 2satisfiability tests and additional systematic reasoning techniques. In this paper, the main elements of the algorithm are discussed, and its remarkable effectiveness is illustrated with some examples and computational results.
On the Relative Complexity of Resolution Refinements and Cutting Planes Proof Systems
, 2000
"... An exponential lower bound for the size of treelike Cutting Planes refutations of a certain family of CNF formulas with polynomial size resolution refutations is proved. This implies an exponential separation between the treelike versions and the daglike versions of resolution and Cutting Planes. ..."
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Cited by 40 (9 self)
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An exponential lower bound for the size of treelike Cutting Planes refutations of a certain family of CNF formulas with polynomial size resolution refutations is proved. This implies an exponential separation between the treelike versions and the daglike versions of resolution and Cutting Planes. In both cases only superpolynomial separations were known [29, 18, 8]. In order to prove these separations, the lower bounds on the depth of monotone circuits of Raz and McKenzie in [25] are extended to monotone real circuits. An exponential separation is also proved between treelike resolution and several refinements of resolution: negative resolution and regular resolution. Actually this last separation also provides a separation between treelike resolution and ordered resolution, thus the corresponding superpolynomial separation of [29] is extended. Finally, an exponential separation between ordered resolution and unrestricted resolution (also negative resolution) is proved. Only a superpolynomial separation between ordered and unrestricted resolution was previously known [13].
Space Complexity In Propositional Calculus
 SIAM JOURNAL OF COMPUTING
, 2002
"... We study space complexity in the framework of propositional proofs. We consider a natural model analogous to Turing machines with a readonly input tape and such popular propositional proof systems as resolution, polynomial calculus, and Frege systems. We propose two di#erent space measures, corresp ..."
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Cited by 40 (8 self)
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We study space complexity in the framework of propositional proofs. We consider a natural model analogous to Turing machines with a readonly input tape and such popular propositional proof systems as resolution, polynomial calculus, and Frege systems. We propose two di#erent space measures, corresponding to the maximal number of bits, and clauses/monomials that need to be kept in the memory simultaneously. We prove a number of lower and upper bounds in these models, as well as some structural results concerning the clause space for resolution and Frege systems.
Two party immediate response disputes: properties and efficiency
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2001
"... Abstract. Two Party Immediate Response Disputes (TPIdisputes) are one class of dialogue or argument game in which the protagonists take turns producing counter arguments to the ‘most recent ’ argument advanced by their opponent. Argument games have been found useful as a means of modelling dialecti ..."
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Cited by 38 (17 self)
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Abstract. Two Party Immediate Response Disputes (TPIdisputes) are one class of dialogue or argument game in which the protagonists take turns producing counter arguments to the ‘most recent ’ argument advanced by their opponent. Argument games have been found useful as a means of modelling dialectical discourse and in providing semantic bases for proof theoretic aspects of reasoning. In this article we consider a formalisation of TPIdisputes in the context of finite Argument Systems. Our principal concern may, informally, be phrased as follows: given a specific argument system, À and argument, x within À, what can be stated concerning the number of rounds a dispute might take for one of its protagonists to accept that x has some defence respectively cannot be defended?
Issues of Decidability for Description Logics in the Framework of Resolution
 In Automated Deduction in Classical and NonClassical Logics
, 1998
"... . We describe two methods on the basis of which efficient resolution decision procedures can be developed for a range of description logics. The first method uses an ordering restriction and applies to the description logic ALB, which extends ALC with the top role, full role negation, role intersect ..."
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Cited by 37 (19 self)
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. We describe two methods on the basis of which efficient resolution decision procedures can be developed for a range of description logics. The first method uses an ordering restriction and applies to the description logic ALB, which extends ALC with the top role, full role negation, role intersection, role disjunction, role converse, domain restriction, range restriction, and role hierarchies. The second method is based solely on a selection restriction and applies to reducts of ALB without the top role and role negation. The latter method can be viewed as a polynomial simulation of familiar tableauxbased decision procedures. It can also be employed for automated model generation. 1 Introduction Since the work of Kallick [13] resolutionbased decision procedures for subclasses of firstorder logic have drawn continuous attention [5,7,12]. There are two research areas where decidability issues also play a prominent role: extended modal logics and description logics [6,9,14]. Althoug...