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Learning Stochastic Logic Programs
, 2000
"... Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) have been shown to be a generalisation of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), stochastic contextfree grammars, and directed Bayes' nets. A stochastic logic program consists of a set of labelled clauses p:C where p is in the interval [0,1] and C is a firstorder range ..."
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Cited by 1057 (69 self)
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Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) have been shown to be a generalisation of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), stochastic contextfree grammars, and directed Bayes' nets. A stochastic logic program consists of a set of labelled clauses p:C where p is in the interval [0,1] and C is a firstorder rangerestricted definite clause. This paper summarises the syntax, distributional semantics and proof techniques for SLPs and then discusses how a standard Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) system, Progol, has been modied to support learning of SLPs. The resulting system 1) nds an SLP with uniform probability labels on each definition and nearmaximal Bayes posterior probability and then 2) alters the probability labels to further increase the posterior probability. Stage 1) is implemented within CProgol4.5, which differs from previous versions of Progol by allowing userdefined evaluation functions written in Prolog. It is shown that maximising the Bayesian posterior function involves nding SLPs with short derivations of the examples. Search pruning with the Bayesian evaluation function is carried out in the same way as in previous versions of CProgol. The system is demonstrated with worked examples involving the learning of probability distributions over sequences as well as the learning of simple forms of uncertain knowledge.
Inverse entailment and Progol
, 1995
"... This paper firstly provides a reappraisal of the development of techniques for inverting deduction, secondly introduces ModeDirected Inverse Entailment (MDIE) as a generalisation and enhancement of previous approaches and thirdly describes an implementation of MDIE in the Progol system. Progol ..."
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Cited by 628 (58 self)
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This paper firstly provides a reappraisal of the development of techniques for inverting deduction, secondly introduces ModeDirected Inverse Entailment (MDIE) as a generalisation and enhancement of previous approaches and thirdly describes an implementation of MDIE in the Progol system. Progol is implemented in C and available by anonymous ftp. The reassessment of previous techniques in terms of inverse entailment leads to new results for learning from positive data and inverting implication between pairs of clauses.
Learnability in Optimality Theory
, 1995
"... In this article we show how Optimality Theory yields a highly general Constraint Demotion principle for grammar learning. The resulting learning procedure specifically exploits the grammatical structure of Optimality Theory, independent of the content of substantive constraints defining any given gr ..."
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Cited by 377 (31 self)
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In this article we show how Optimality Theory yields a highly general Constraint Demotion principle for grammar learning. The resulting learning procedure specifically exploits the grammatical structure of Optimality Theory, independent of the content of substantive constraints defining any given grammatical module. We decompose the learning problem and present formal results for a central subproblem, deducing the constraint ranking particular to a target language, given structural descriptions of positive examples. The structure imposed on the space of possible grammars by Optimality Theory allows efficient convergence to a correct grammar. We discuss implications for learning from overt data only, as well as other learning issues. We argue that Optimality Theory promotes confluence of the demands of more effective learnability and deeper linguistic explanation.
Learning and development in neural networks: The importance of starting small
 Cognition
, 1993
"... It is a striking fact that in humans the greatest learnmg occurs precisely at that point in time childhood when the most dramatic maturational changes also occur. This report describes possible synergistic interactions between maturational change and the ability to learn a complex domain (language ..."
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Cited by 370 (15 self)
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It is a striking fact that in humans the greatest learnmg occurs precisely at that point in time childhood when the most dramatic maturational changes also occur. This report describes possible synergistic interactions between maturational change and the ability to learn a complex domain (language), as investigated in connectionist networks. The networks are trained to process complex sentences involving relative clauses, number agreement, and several types of verb argument structure. Training fails in the case of networks which are fully formed and ‘adultlike ’ in their capacity. Training succeeds only when networks begin with limited working memory and gradually ‘mature ’ to the adult state. This result suggests that rather than being a limitation, developmental restrictions on resources may constitute a necessary prerequisite for mastering certain complex domains. Specifically, successful learning may depend on starting small.
Distributed representations, simple recurrent networks, and grammatical structure
 Machine Learning
, 1991
"... Abstract. In this paper three problems for a connectionist account of language are considered: 1. What is the nature of linguistic representations? 2. How can complex structural relationships such as constituent structure be represented? 3. How can the apparently openended nature of language be acc ..."
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Cited by 313 (16 self)
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Abstract. In this paper three problems for a connectionist account of language are considered: 1. What is the nature of linguistic representations? 2. How can complex structural relationships such as constituent structure be represented? 3. How can the apparently openended nature of language be accommodated by a fixedresource system? Using a prediction task, a simple recurrent network (SRN) is trained on multiclausal sentences which contain multiplyembedded relative clauses. Principal component analysis of the hidden unit activation patterns reveals that the network solves the task by developing complex distributed representations which encode the relevant grammatical relations and hierarchical constituent structure. Differences between the SRN state representations and the more traditional pushdown store are discussed in the final section.
RoadRunner: Towards Automatic Data Extraction from Large Web Sites
, 2001
"... The paper investigates techniques for extracting data from HTML sites through the use of automatically generated wrappers. To automate the wrapper generation and the data extraction process, the paper develops a novel technique to compare HTML pages and generate a wrapper based on their similarities ..."
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Cited by 299 (7 self)
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The paper investigates techniques for extracting data from HTML sites through the use of automatically generated wrappers. To automate the wrapper generation and the data extraction process, the paper develops a novel technique to compare HTML pages and generate a wrapper based on their similarities and di#erences. Experimental results on reallife dataintensive Web sites confirm the feasibility of the approach. 1
Software unit test coverage and adequacy
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1997
"... Objective measurement of test quality is one of the key issues in software testing. It has been a major research focus for the last two decades. Many test criteria have been proposed and studied for this purpose. Various kinds of rationales have been presented in support of one criterion or another. ..."
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Cited by 257 (6 self)
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Objective measurement of test quality is one of the key issues in software testing. It has been a major research focus for the last two decades. Many test criteria have been proposed and studied for this purpose. Various kinds of rationales have been presented in support of one criterion or another. We survey the research work in
Discovering Models of Software Processes from EventBased Data
 ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology
, 1998
"... this article we describe a Markov method that we developed specifically for process discovery, as well as describe two additional methods that we adopted from other domains and augmented for our purposes. The three methods range from the purely algorithmic to the purely statistical. We compare the m ..."
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Cited by 232 (7 self)
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this article we describe a Markov method that we developed specifically for process discovery, as well as describe two additional methods that we adopted from other domains and augmented for our purposes. The three methods range from the purely algorithmic to the purely statistical. We compare the methods and discuss their application in an industrial case study.
Functional Phonology  Formalizing the interactions between articulatory and perceptual drives
, 1998
"... ..."
Identifying hierarchical structure in sequences: A lineartime algorithm
, 1997
"... SEQUITUR is an algorithm that infers a hierarchical structure from a sequence of discrete symbols by replacing repeated phrases with a grammatical rule that generates the phrase, and continuing this process recursively. The result is a hierarchical representation of the original sequence, which offe ..."
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Cited by 157 (3 self)
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SEQUITUR is an algorithm that infers a hierarchical structure from a sequence of discrete symbols by replacing repeated phrases with a grammatical rule that generates the phrase, and continuing this process recursively. The result is a hierarchical representation of the original sequence, which offers insights into its lexical structure. The algorithm is driven by two constraints that reduce the size of the grammar, and produce structure as a byproduct. SEQUITUR breaks new ground by operating incrementally. Moreover, the method’s simple structure permits a proof that it operates in space and time that is linear in the size of the input. Our implementation can process 50,000 symbols per second and has been applied to an extensive range of real world sequences. 1.