Results 1  10
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252
Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning
, 2002
"... Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have bee ..."
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Cited by 564 (3 self)
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Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have been used for problems ranging from tracking planes and missiles to predicting the economy. However, HMMs
and KFMs are limited in their “expressive power”. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) generalize HMMs by allowing the state space to be represented in factored form, instead of as a single discrete random variable. DBNs generalize KFMs by allowing arbitrary probability distributions, not just (unimodal) linearGaussian. In this thesis, I will discuss how to represent many different kinds of models as DBNs, how to perform exact and approximate inference in DBNs, and how to learn DBN models from sequential data.
In particular, the main novel technical contributions of this thesis are as follows: a way of representing
Hierarchical HMMs as DBNs, which enables inference to be done in O(T) time instead of O(T 3), where T is the length of the sequence; an exact smoothing algorithm that takes O(log T) space instead of O(T); a simple way of using the junction tree algorithm for online inference in DBNs; new complexity bounds on exact online inference in DBNs; a new deterministic approximate inference algorithm called factored frontier; an analysis of the relationship between the BK algorithm and loopy belief propagation; a way of
applying RaoBlackwellised particle filtering to DBNs in general, and the SLAM (simultaneous localization
and mapping) problem in particular; a way of extending the structural EM algorithm to DBNs; and a variety of different applications of DBNs. However, perhaps the main value of the thesis is its catholic presentation of the field of sequential data modelling.
Face recognition by independent component analysis
 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, 2002
"... Abstract—A number of current face recognition algorithms use face representations found by unsupervised statistical methods. Typically these methods find a set of basis images and represent faces as a linear combination of those images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular example of such ..."
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Cited by 189 (4 self)
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Abstract—A number of current face recognition algorithms use face representations found by unsupervised statistical methods. Typically these methods find a set of basis images and represent faces as a linear combination of those images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular example of such methods. The basis images found by PCA depend only on pairwise relationships between pixels in the image database. In a task such as face recognition, in which important information may be contained in the highorder relationships among pixels, it seems reasonable to expect that better basis images may be found by methods sensitive to these highorder statistics. Independent component analysis (ICA), a generalization of PCA, is one such method. We used a version of ICA derived from the principle of optimal information transfer through sigmoidal neurons. ICA was performed on face images in the FERET database under two different architectures, one which treated the images as random variables and the pixels as outcomes, and a second which treated the pixels as random variables and the images as outcomes. The first architecture found spatially local basis images for the faces. The second architecture produced a factorial face code. Both ICA representations were superior to representations based on PCA for recognizing faces across days and changes in expression. A classifier that combined the two ICA representations gave the best performance. Index Terms—Eigenfaces, face recognition, independent component analysis (ICA), principal component analysis (PCA), unsupervised learning. I.
Canonical correlation analysis; An overview with application to learning methods
, 2007
"... We present a general method using kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis to learn a semantic representation to web images and their associated text. The semantic space provides a common representation and enables a comparison between the text and images. In the experiments we look at two approaches o ..."
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Cited by 162 (14 self)
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We present a general method using kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis to learn a semantic representation to web images and their associated text. The semantic space provides a common representation and enables a comparison between the text and images. In the experiments we look at two approaches of retrieving images based only on their content from a text query. We compare the approaches against a standard crossrepresentation retrieval technique known as the Generalised Vector Space Model.
The Entire Regularization Path for the Support Vector Machine
, 2004
"... In this paper we argue that the choice of the SVM cost parameter can be critical. We then derive an algorithm that can fit the entire path of SVM solutions for every value of the cost parameter, with essentially the same computational cost as fitting one SVM model. ..."
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Cited by 148 (9 self)
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In this paper we argue that the choice of the SVM cost parameter can be critical. We then derive an algorithm that can fit the entire path of SVM solutions for every value of the cost parameter, with essentially the same computational cost as fitting one SVM model.
Dimensionality reduction for supervised learning with reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2004
"... We propose a novel method of dimensionality reduction for supervised learning problems. Given a regression or classification problem in which we wish to predict a response variable Y from an explanatory variable X, we treat the problem of dimensionality reduction as that of finding a lowdimensional ..."
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Cited by 117 (26 self)
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We propose a novel method of dimensionality reduction for supervised learning problems. Given a regression or classification problem in which we wish to predict a response variable Y from an explanatory variable X, we treat the problem of dimensionality reduction as that of finding a lowdimensional “effective subspace ” for X which retains the statistical relationship between X and Y. We show that this problem can be formulated in terms of conditional independence. To turn this formulation into an optimization problem we establish a general nonparametric characterization of conditional independence using covariance operators on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. This characterization allows us to derive a contrast function for estimation of the effective subspace. Unlike many conventional methods for dimensionality reduction in supervised learning, the proposed method requires neither assumptions on the marginal distribution of X, nor a parametric model of the conditional distribution of Y. We present experiments that compare the performance of the method with conventional methods.
Measuring statistical dependence with HilbertSchmidt norms
 PROCEEDINGS ALGORITHMIC LEARNING THEORY
, 2005
"... We propose an independence criterion based on the eigenspectrum of covariance operators in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs), consisting of an empirical estimate of the HilbertSchmidt norm of the crosscovariance operator (we term this a HilbertSchmidt Independence Criterion, or HSIC). Th ..."
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Cited by 95 (41 self)
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We propose an independence criterion based on the eigenspectrum of covariance operators in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs), consisting of an empirical estimate of the HilbertSchmidt norm of the crosscovariance operator (we term this a HilbertSchmidt Independence Criterion, or HSIC). This approach has several advantages, compared with previous kernelbased independence criteria. First, the empirical estimate is simpler than any other kernel dependence test, and requires no userdefined regularisation. Second, there is a clearly defined population quantity which the empirical estimate approaches in the large sample limit, with exponential convergence guaranteed between the two: this ensures that independence tests based on HSIC do not suffer from slow learning rates. Finally, we show in the context of independent component analysis (ICA) that the performance of HSIC is competitive with that of previously published kernelbased criteria, and of other recently published ICA methods.
Efficient Additive Kernels via Explicit Feature Maps
"... Maji and Berg [13] have recently introduced an explicit feature map approximating the intersection kernel. This enables efficient learning methods for linear kernels to be applied to the nonlinear intersection kernel, expanding the applicability of this model to much larger problems. In this paper ..."
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Cited by 82 (7 self)
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Maji and Berg [13] have recently introduced an explicit feature map approximating the intersection kernel. This enables efficient learning methods for linear kernels to be applied to the nonlinear intersection kernel, expanding the applicability of this model to much larger problems. In this paper we generalize this idea, and analyse a large family of additive kernels, called homogeneous, in a unified framework. The family includes the intersection, Hellinger’s, and χ2 kernels commonly employed in computer vision. Using the framework we are able to: (i) provide explicit feature maps for all homogeneous additive kernels along with closed form expression for all common kernels; (ii) derive corresponding approximate finitedimensional feature maps based on the Fourier sampling theorem; and (iii) quantify the extent of the approximation. We demonstrate that the approximations have indistinguishable performance from the full kernel on a number of standard datasets, yet greatly reduce the train/test times of SVM implementations. We show that the χ2 kernel, which has been found to yield the best performance in most applications, also has the most compact feature representation. Given these train/test advantages we are able to obtain a significant performance improvement over current state of the art results based on the intersection kernel. 1.
Learning the Kernel with Hyperkernels
, 2003
"... This paper addresses the problem of choosing a kernel suitable for estimation with a Support Vector Machine, hence further automating machine learning. This goal is achieved by defining a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space on the space of kernels itself. Such a formulation leads to a statistical es ..."
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Cited by 79 (2 self)
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This paper addresses the problem of choosing a kernel suitable for estimation with a Support Vector Machine, hence further automating machine learning. This goal is achieved by defining a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space on the space of kernels itself. Such a formulation leads to a statistical estimation problem very much akin to the problem of minimizing a regularized risk functional.
Learning over Sets using Kernel Principal Angles
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2003
"... We consider the problem of learning with instances defined over a space of sets of vectors. We derive a new positive definite kernel f (A,B) defined over pairs of matrices A,B based on the concept of principal angles between two linear subspaces. We show that the principal angles can be recovered ..."
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Cited by 79 (2 self)
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We consider the problem of learning with instances defined over a space of sets of vectors. We derive a new positive definite kernel f (A,B) defined over pairs of matrices A,B based on the concept of principal angles between two linear subspaces. We show that the principal angles can be recovered using only innerproducts between pairs of column vectors of the input matrices thereby allowing the original column vectors of A,B to be mapped onto arbitrarily highdimensional feature spaces.