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19
An Overview of Elliptic Curve Cryptography
, 2000
"... Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) was introduced by Victor Miller and Neal Koblitz in 1985. ECC proposed as an alternative to established publickey systems such as DSA and RSA, have recently gained a lot attention in industry and academia. The main reason for the attractiveness of ECC is the fact t ..."
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Cited by 29 (2 self)
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Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) was introduced by Victor Miller and Neal Koblitz in 1985. ECC proposed as an alternative to established publickey systems such as DSA and RSA, have recently gained a lot attention in industry and academia. The main reason for the attractiveness of ECC is the fact that there is no subexponential algorithm known to solve the discrete logarithm problem on a properly chosen elliptic curve. This means that significantly smaller parameters can be used in ECC than in other competitive systems such RSA and DSA, but with equivalent levels of security. Some benefits of having smaller key sizes include faster computations, and reductions in processing power, storage space and bandwidth. This makes ECC ideal for constrained environments such as pagers, PDAs, cellular phones and smart cards. The implementation of ECC, on the other hand, requires several choices such as the type of the underlying finite field, algorithms for implementing the finite field arithmetic and so on. In this paper we give we presen an selective overview of the main methods.
Finite Field Multiplier Using Redundant Representation
 IEEE Transactions on Computers
, 2002
"... This article presents simple and highly regular architectures for finite field multipliers using a redundant representation. The basic idea is to embed a finite field into a cyclotomic ring which has a basis with the elegant multiplicative structure of a cyclic group. One important feature of our ar ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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This article presents simple and highly regular architectures for finite field multipliers using a redundant representation. The basic idea is to embed a finite field into a cyclotomic ring which has a basis with the elegant multiplicative structure of a cyclic group. One important feature of our architectures is that they provide areatime tradeoffs which enable us to implement the multipliers in a partialparallel/hybrid fashion. This hybrid architecture has great significance in its VLSI implementation in very large fields. The squaring operation using the redundant representation is simply a permutation of the coordinates. It is shown that when there is an optimal normal basis, the proposed bitserial and hybrid multiplier architectures have very low space complexity. Constant multiplication is also considered and is shown to have advantage in using the redundant representation. Index terms: Finite field arithmetic, cyclotomic ring, redundant set, normal basis, multiplier, squaring.
Elliptic curve cryptosystems on reconfigurable hardware
 MASTER’S THESIS, WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INST
, 1998
"... Security issues will play an important role in the majority of communication and computer networks of the future. As the Internet becomes more and more accessible to the public, security measures will have to be strengthened. Elliptic curve cryptosystems allow for shorter operand lengths than other ..."
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Cited by 19 (0 self)
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Security issues will play an important role in the majority of communication and computer networks of the future. As the Internet becomes more and more accessible to the public, security measures will have to be strengthened. Elliptic curve cryptosystems allow for shorter operand lengths than other publickey schemes based on the discrete logarithm in finite fields and the integer factorization problem and are thus attractive for many applications. This thesis describes an implementation of a crypto engine based on elliptic curves. The underlying algebraic structures are composite Galois fields GF((2 n) m) in a standard base representation. As a major new feature, the system is developed for a reconfigurable platform based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). FPGAs combine the flexibility of software solutions with the security of traditional hardware implementations. In particular, it is possible to easily change all algorithm parameters such as curve coefficients, field order, or field representation. The thesis deals with the design and implementation of elliptic curve point multiplicationarchitectures. The architectures are described in VHDL and mapped to Xilinx FPGA devices. Architectures over Galois fields of different order and representation were implemented and compared. Area and timing measurements are provided for all architectures. It is shown that a full point multiplication on elliptic curves of realworld size can be implemented on commercially available FPGAs.
On Orders of Optimal Normal Basis Generators
 Math. Comp
, 1995
"... In this paper we give some computational results on the multiplicative orders of optimal normal basis generators in F2 n over F2 for n # 1200 whenever the complete factorization of 2  1 is known. Our results show that a subclass of optimal normal basis generators always have very high multiplic ..."
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Cited by 14 (6 self)
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In this paper we give some computational results on the multiplicative orders of optimal normal basis generators in F2 n over F2 for n # 1200 whenever the complete factorization of 2  1 is known. Our results show that a subclass of optimal normal basis generators always have very high multiplicative orders and are very often primitive. For a given optimal normal basis generator # in F2 n and an arbitrary integer e, we show that # can be computed in O(n v(e)) bit operations, where v(e) is the number of 1's in the binary representation of e.
Elements Of Provable High Orders In Finite Fields
 Proc. American Math. Soc
, 1997
"... A method is given for constructing elements in F q n whose orders are larger than any polynomial in n when n becomes large. As a byproduct a theorem on multiplicative independence of compositions of polynomials is proved. 1. ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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A method is given for constructing elements in F q n whose orders are larger than any polynomial in n when n becomes large. As a byproduct a theorem on multiplicative independence of compositions of polynomials is proved. 1.
Normal Bases over Finite Fields
, 1993
"... Interest in normal bases over finite fields stems both from mathematical theory and practical applications. There has been a lot of literature dealing with various properties of normal bases (for finite fields and for Galois extension of arbitrary fields). The advantage of using normal bases to repr ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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Interest in normal bases over finite fields stems both from mathematical theory and practical applications. There has been a lot of literature dealing with various properties of normal bases (for finite fields and for Galois extension of arbitrary fields). The advantage of using normal bases to represent finite fields was noted by Hensel in 1888. With the introduction of optimal normal bases, large finite fields, that can be used in secure and e#cient implementation of several cryptosystems, have recently been realized in hardware. The present thesis studies various theoretical and practical aspects of normal bases in finite fields. We first give some characterizations of normal bases. Then by using linear algebra, we prove that F q n has a basis over F q such that any element in F q represented in this basis generates a normal basis if and only if some groups of coordinates are not simultaneously zero. We show how to construct an irreducible polynomial of degree 2 n with linearly i...
Irreducible Polynomials of Given Forms
, 1999
"... We survey under a unified approach on the number of irreducible polynomials of given forms: x + g(x) where the coefficient vector of g comes from an affine algebraic variety over Fq . For instance, all but 2 log n coefficients of g(x) are prefixed. The known results are mostly for large q and little ..."
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Cited by 7 (4 self)
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We survey under a unified approach on the number of irreducible polynomials of given forms: x + g(x) where the coefficient vector of g comes from an affine algebraic variety over Fq . For instance, all but 2 log n coefficients of g(x) are prefixed. The known results are mostly for large q and little is know when q is small or fixed. We present computer experiments on several classes of polynomials over F 2 and compare our data with the results that hold for large q. We also mention some related applications and problems of (irreducible) polynomials with special forms.
Elliptic Curve Cryptography on Smart Cards
, 2000
"... In 1985 Neal Koblitz and V.S. Miller proposed elliptic curves to be used for public key cryptosystems, whereas RSA, a nowadays widely used public key cryptosystem, was developed by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman almost ten years earlier in 1977. The elliptic curve cryptosystem benefits from smaller key ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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In 1985 Neal Koblitz and V.S. Miller proposed elliptic curves to be used for public key cryptosystems, whereas RSA, a nowadays widely used public key cryptosystem, was developed by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman almost ten years earlier in 1977. The elliptic curve cryptosystem benefits from smaller key sizes than RSA, which makes its cryptographic operations, encryption, decryption, signing, and signature verification faster than RSA's operations. A smart card is a singlechip microcomputer with a size of 25 mm² at most. Today smart cards are used mainly for electronic identification and storing user information. Smart cards are also used to store private keys and to execute cryptographic operations which use private keys. This Master's thesis examines whether elliptic curve cryptography is better suited to be used on smart cards than the nowadays widely used RSA. It describes the elliptic curve cryptography and RSA implementations used to compare these two cryptosystems, and presents performance comparisons based on these implementations. In addition, this thesis contains security and space requirement comparisons between these two cryptosystems. According to the test results, signing and decryption operations are faster with the elliptic curve cryptosystem than with RSA, but RSA is faster when encrypting messages or verifying signatures. On the other hand, the elliptic curve cryptosystem needs less space to store the private keys than RSA, and is thus well suited to be used on smart cards. The elliptic curve cryptosystem has the disadvantage that the MenezesVanstone encryption increases the size of encrypted messages considerably more than RSA encryption does. In addition, because an elliptic curve cryptosystem implementation is more complicated and requires deeper mathematical understanding than an RSA implementation, it is more susceptible to errors which diminishes its security.
Discrete Logarithm based cryptosystems in quadratic function fields of characteristic 2
 DESIGNS, CODES AND CRYPTOGRAPHY
, 1998
"... We present a key exchange scheme similar to that of Diffie and Hellman using the infrastructure of quadratic function fields of even characteristic. This is a modification of the results of Scheidler, Stein and Williams who used quadratic function fields of odd characteristic. We also extend these r ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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We present a key exchange scheme similar to that of Diffie and Hellman using the infrastructure of quadratic function fields of even characteristic. This is a modification of the results of Scheidler, Stein and Williams who used quadratic function fields of odd characteristic. We also extend these results to give a digital signature scheme similar to that of ElGamal. These schemes are possible in this structure even though it is not a group. Finally we examine the security of such systems, and give a possible attack based on Pohlig and Hellman's attack on discrete logarithms in finite groups.
On the (im)possibility of practical and secure nonlinear filters and combiners
 Selected Areas in Cryptography, SAC 2005, number 3897 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2005
"... Abstract. A vast amount of literature on stream ciphers is directed to the cryptanalysis of LFSRbased filters and combiners, resulting in various attack models such as distinguishing attacks, (fast) correlation attacks and (fast) algebraic attacks. However, very little is known on the combined effe ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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Abstract. A vast amount of literature on stream ciphers is directed to the cryptanalysis of LFSRbased filters and combiners, resulting in various attack models such as distinguishing attacks, (fast) correlation attacks and (fast) algebraic attacks. However, very little is known on the combined effects of these attacks and the resulting cryptographic requirements. In this paper, we present a unified framework for the security of a design against these attacks based on the properties of the LFSR(s) and the Boolean function used. It is explained why building nonlinear filters seems more practical than building nonlinear combiners. We also investigate concrete building blocks that offer a good tradeoff in their resistance against these various attacks, and can at the same time be used to build a lowcost synchronous stream cipher for hardware applications.