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Resistor network approaches to electrical impedance tomography
 Inside Out, Mathematical Sciences Research Institute Publications
, 2011
"... We review a resistor network approach to the numerical solution of the inverse problem of electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The networks arise in the context of finite volume discretizations of the elliptic equation for the electric potential, on sparse and adaptively refined grids that we call ..."
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We review a resistor network approach to the numerical solution of the inverse problem of electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The networks arise in the context of finite volume discretizations of the elliptic equation for the electric potential, on sparse and adaptively refined grids that we call optimal. The name refers to the fact that the grids give spectrally accurate approximations of the Dirichlet to Neumann map, the data in EIT. The fundamental feature of the optimal grids in inversion is that they connect the discrete inverse problem for resistor networks to the continuum EIT problem. 1.
Modeling Across Scales: Discrete Geometric Structures in Homogenization and Inverse Homogenization
"... Imaging and simulation methods are typically constrained to resolutions much coarser than the scale of physical microstructures present in body tissues or geological features. Mathematical and numerical homogenization address this practical issue by identifying and computing appropriate spatial ave ..."
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Imaging and simulation methods are typically constrained to resolutions much coarser than the scale of physical microstructures present in body tissues or geological features. Mathematical and numerical homogenization address this practical issue by identifying and computing appropriate spatial averages that result in accuracy and consistency between the macroscales we observe and the underlying microscale models we assume. Among the various applications benefiting from homogenization, Electric Impedance Tomography (EIT) images the electrical conductivity of a body by measuring electrical potentials consequential to electric currents applied to the exterior of the body. EIT is routinely used in breast cancer detection and cardiopulmonary imaging, where current flow in finescale tissues underlies the resulting coarsescale images. In this paper, we introduce a geometric approach for the homogenization (simulation) and inverse homogenization (imaging) of divergenceform
STUDY OF NOISE EFFECTS IN ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY WITH RESISTOR NETWORKS
, 1105
"... Abstract. We present a study of the numerical solution of the two dimensional electrical impedance tomography problem, with noisy measurements of the Dirichlet to Neumann map. The inversion uses parametrizations of the conductivity on optimal grids. The grids are optimal in the sense that finite vol ..."
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Abstract. We present a study of the numerical solution of the two dimensional electrical impedance tomography problem, with noisy measurements of the Dirichlet to Neumann map. The inversion uses parametrizations of the conductivity on optimal grids. The grids are optimal in the sense that finite volume discretizations on them give spectrally accurate approximations of the Dirichlet to Neumann map. The approximations are Dirichlet to Neumann maps of special resistor networks, that are uniquely recoverable from the measurements. Inversion on optimal grids has been proposed and analyzed recently, but the study of noise effects on the inversion has not been carried out. In this paper we present a numerical study of both the linearized and the nonlinear inverse problem. We take three different parametrizations of the unknown conductivity, with the same number of degrees of freedom. We obtain that the parametrization induced by the inversion on optimal grids is the most efficient of the three, because it gives the smallest standard deviation of the maximum a posteriori estimates of the conductivity, uniformly in the domain. For the nonlinear problem we compute the mean and variance of the maximum aposterioriestimatesoftheconductivity,onoptimalgrids. Forsmallnoise, we obtain that the estimates are unbiased and their variance is very close to the optimal one, given by the CramÃ©rRao bound. For larger noise we use regularization and quantify the tradeoff between reducing the variance and introducing bias in the solution. Both the full and partial measurement setups are considered. 1.
A MODEL REDUCTION APPROACH TO NUMERICAL INVERSION FOR A PARABOLIC PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
, 1210
"... Abstract. We propose a novel numerical inversion algorithm for parabolic partial differential equations, based on model reduction. The study is motivated by the application of controlled source electromagnetic exploration, where the unknown is the subsurface electrical resistivity and the data are t ..."
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Abstract. We propose a novel numerical inversion algorithm for parabolic partial differential equations, based on model reduction. The study is motivated by the application of controlled source electromagnetic exploration, where the unknown is the subsurface electrical resistivity and the data are time resolved surface measurements of the magnetic field. The algorithm presented in this paper considers a layered medium. The reduced model is obtained with rational interpolation in the frequency (Laplace) domain and a rational Krylov subspace projection method. It amounts to a nonlinear mapping from the function space of the unknown resistivity to the small dimensional space of the parameters of the reduced model. We use this mapping as a nonlinear preconditioner for the GaussNewton iterative solution of the inverse problem. The advantage of the inversion algorithm is twofold. First, the nonlinear preconditioner resolves most of the nonlinearity of the problem. Thus the iterations are less likely to get stuck in local minima and the convergence is fast. Second, the inversion is computationally efficient because it avoids repeated computations of the time domain solutions of the forward problem. We study the stability of the inversion algorithm for various rational Krylov subspaces, and assess its performance with numerical experiments. Key words. Inverse problem, parabolic, CSEM, model reduction, rational Krylov subspace projection