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**1 - 5**of**5**### Universally Programmable Intelligent Matter

, 2002

"... Intelligent matter is any material in which individual molecules or supra-molecular clusters function as agents to accomplish some purpose. Intelligent matter may be solid, liquid or gaseous, although liquids and membranes are perhaps most typical. Universally programmable intelligent matter (UPIM) ..."

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Intelligent matter is any material in which individual molecules or supra-molecular clusters function as agents to accomplish some purpose. Intelligent matter may be solid, liquid or gaseous, although liquids and membranes are perhaps most typical. Universally programmable intelligent matter (UPIM) is made from a small set of molecular building blocks that are universal in the sense that they can be rearranged to accomplish any purpose that can be described by a computer program. In effect, a computer program controls the behavior of the material at the molecular level. In some applications the molecules self-assemble a desired nanostructure by “computing ” the structure and then becoming inactive. In other applications the material remains active so that it can respond, at the molecular level, to its environment or to other external conditions. An extreme case is when programmable supra-molecular clusters act as autonomous agents to achieve some end. This report outlines a one-year exploratory research project to investigate the feasibility of UPIM. 1 Project Summary

### A Systematic Approach to Nanotechnology Based on a Small Set of Molecular Building Blocks

"... Abstract — A small set of molecular building blocks will allow the implementation of “universally programmable intelligent matter,” that is, matter whose structure, properties, and behavior can be programmed, quite literally, at the molecular level. The approach is based on combinatory logic, a term ..."

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Abstract — A small set of molecular building blocks will allow the implementation of “universally programmable intelligent matter,” that is, matter whose structure, properties, and behavior can be programmed, quite literally, at the molecular level. The approach is based on combinatory logic, a term-rewriting or graphsubstitution system, which can be interpreted as an abstract model of molecular processes. In such systems there are small sets of substitution operations (reactions) that are universal in the sense that they can be used to program any Turing-computable function. Although these operations provide the building blocks for univerally programmable intelligent matter, there are many issues that arise in the context of molecular computation, which we address. Index Terms — adaptive matter, combinatory logic, DNA computing, functional programming, intelligent matter, molecular computing, nanocomputation, nanotechnology, programmable matter, term-rewriting systems. I.

### A Systematic Approach to Nanotechnology Based on a Small Set of Molecular Building Blocks

"... Abstract — A small set of molecular building blocks will allow the implementation of “universally programmable intelligent matter,” that is, matter whose structure, properties, and behavior can be programmed, quite literally, at the molecular level. The approach is based on combinatory logic, a term ..."

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Abstract — A small set of molecular building blocks will allow the implementation of “universally programmable intelligent matter,” that is, matter whose structure, properties, and behavior can be programmed, quite literally, at the molecular level. The approach is based on combinatory logic, a term-rewriting or graphsubstitution system, which can be interpreted as an abstract model of molecular processes. In such systems there are small sets of substitution operations (reactions) that are universal in the sense that they can be used to program any Turing-computable function. Although these operations provide the building blocks for univerally programmable intelligent matter, there are many issues that arise in the context of molecular computation, which we address. Index Terms — adaptive matter, combinatory logic, DNA computing, functional programming, intelligent matter, molecular computing, nanocomputation, nanotechnology, programmable matter, term-rewriting systems. I.

### Towards a Definition of Dynamical Hierarchies

- In Workshop Proceedings of Alife VIII
, 2002

"... Hierarchical organisation is omnipresent in natural systems and is of special importance in connection with living systems. Thus far it is poorly understood what type of artificially created system is capable of replicating the emergent hierarchical structure of nature. This paper is an attempt ..."

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Hierarchical organisation is omnipresent in natural systems and is of special importance in connection with living systems. Thus far it is poorly understood what type of artificially created system is capable of replicating the emergent hierarchical structure of nature. This paper is an attempt to clarify what hierarchical structure could be.

### Elements of a Theory of Simulation

- in ECAL 95, Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1995

"... . Artificial Life and the more general area of Complex Systems does not have a unified theoretical framework although most theoretical work in these areas is based on simulation. This is primarily due to an insufficient representational power of the classical mathematical frameworks for the desc ..."

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. Artificial Life and the more general area of Complex Systems does not have a unified theoretical framework although most theoretical work in these areas is based on simulation. This is primarily due to an insufficient representational power of the classical mathematical frameworks for the description of discrete dynamical systems of interacting objects with often complex internal states. Unlike computation or the numerical analysis of differential equations, simulation does not have a well established conceptual and mathematical foundation. Simulation is an arguable unique union of modeling and computation. However, simulation also qualifies as a separate species of system representation with its own motivations, characteristics, and implications. This work outlines how simulation can be rooted in mathematics and shows which properties some of the elements of such a mathematical framework has. The properties of simulation are described and analyzed in terms of properties of dynamical systems. It is shown how and why a simulation produces emergent behavior and why the analysis of the dynamics of the system being simulated always is an analysis of emergent phenomena. Indeed, the single fundamental class of properties of the natural world that simulation will open to new understanding, is that which occurs only in the dynamics produced by the interactions of the components of complex systems. Simulation offers a synthetic, formal framework for the experimental mathematics of representation and analysis of complex dynamical systems. A notion of a universal simulator and the definition of simulatability is proposed. This allows a description of conditions under which simulations can distribute update functions over system components, thereby dete...