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Compressed suffix arrays and suffix trees with applications to text indexing and string matching (extended abstract
 in Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
, 2000
"... Abstract. The proliferation of online text, such as found on the World Wide Web and in online databases, motivates the need for spaceefficient text indexing methods that support fast string searching. We model this scenario as follows: Consider a text T consisting of n symbols drawn from a fixed al ..."
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Cited by 189 (17 self)
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Abstract. The proliferation of online text, such as found on the World Wide Web and in online databases, motivates the need for spaceefficient text indexing methods that support fast string searching. We model this scenario as follows: Consider a text T consisting of n symbols drawn from a fixed alphabet Σ. The text T can be represented in n lg Σ  bits by encoding each symbol with lg Σ  bits. The goal is to support fast online queries for searching any string pattern P of m symbols, with T being fully scanned only once, namely, when the index is created at preprocessing time. The text indexing schemes published in the literature are greedy in terms of space usage: they require Ω(n lg n) additional bits of space in the worst case. For example, in the standard unit cost RAM, suffix trees and suffix arrays need Ω(n) memory words, each of Ω(lg n) bits. These indexes are larger than the text itself by a multiplicative factor of Ω(lg Σ  n), which is significant when Σ is of constant size, such as in ascii or unicode. On the other hand, these indexes support fast searching, either in O(m lg Σ) timeorinO(m +lgn) time, plus an outputsensitive cost O(occ) for listing the occ pattern occurrences. We present a new text index that is based upon compressed representations of suffix arrays and suffix trees. It achieves a fast O(m / lg Σ  n +lgɛ Σ  n) search time in the worst case, for any constant
Simple linear work suffix array construction
, 2003
"... Abstract. Suffix trees and suffix arrays are widely used and largely interchangeable index structures on strings and sequences. Practitioners prefer suffix arrays due to their simplicity and space efficiency while theoreticians use suffix trees due to lineartime construction algorithms and more exp ..."
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Cited by 149 (6 self)
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Abstract. Suffix trees and suffix arrays are widely used and largely interchangeable index structures on strings and sequences. Practitioners prefer suffix arrays due to their simplicity and space efficiency while theoreticians use suffix trees due to lineartime construction algorithms and more explicit structure. We narrow this gap between theory and practice with a simple lineartime construction algorithm for suffix arrays. The simplicity is demonstrated with a C++ implementation of 50 effective lines of code. The algorithm is called DC3, which stems from the central underlying concept of difference cover. This view leads to a generalized algorithm, DC, that allows a spaceefficient implementation and, moreover, supports the choice of a space–time tradeoff. For any v ∈ [1, √ n], it runs in O(vn) time using O(n / √ v) space in addition to the input string and the suffix array. We also present variants of the algorithm for several parallel and hierarchical memory models of computation. The algorithms for BSP and EREWPRAM models are asymptotically faster than all previous suffix tree or array construction algorithms.
Lineartime longestcommonprefix computation in suffix arrays and its applications
, 2001
"... Abstract. We present a lineartime algorithm to compute the longest common prefix information in suffix arrays. As two applications of our algorithm, we show that our algorithm is crucial to the effective use of blocksorting compression, and we present a lineartime algorithm to simulate the bottom ..."
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Cited by 79 (2 self)
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Abstract. We present a lineartime algorithm to compute the longest common prefix information in suffix arrays. As two applications of our algorithm, we show that our algorithm is crucial to the effective use of blocksorting compression, and we present a lineartime algorithm to simulate the bottomup traversal of a suffix tree with a suffix array combined with the longest common prefix information. 1
Engineering a lightweight suffix array construction algorithm (Extended Abstract)
"... In this paper we consider the problem of computing the suffix array of a text T [1, n]. This problem consists in sorting the suffixes of T in lexicographic order. The suffix array [16] (or pat array [9]) is a simple, easy to code, and elegant data structure used for several fundamental string matchi ..."
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Cited by 59 (4 self)
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In this paper we consider the problem of computing the suffix array of a text T [1, n]. This problem consists in sorting the suffixes of T in lexicographic order. The suffix array [16] (or pat array [9]) is a simple, easy to code, and elegant data structure used for several fundamental string matching problems involving both linguistic texts and biological data [4, 11]. Recently, the interest in this data structure has been revitalized by its use as a building block for three novel applications: (1) the BurrowsWheeler compression algorithm [3], which is a provably [17] and practically [20] effective compression tool; (2) the construction of succinct [10, 19] and compressed [7, 8] indexes; the latter can store both the input text and its fulltext index using roughly the same space used by traditional compressors for the text alone; and (3) algorithms for clustering and ranking the answers to user queries in websearch engines [22]. In all these applications the construction of the suffix array is the computational bottleneck both in time and space. This motivated our interest in designing yet another suffix array construction algorithm which is fast and "lightweight" in the sense that it uses small space...
Better external memory suffix array construction
 In: Workshop on Algorithm Engineering & Experiments
, 2005
"... Suffix arrays are a simple and powerful data structure for text processing that can be used for full text indexes, data compression, and many other applications in particular in bioinformatics. However, so far it has looked prohibitive to build suffix arrays for huge inputs that do not fit into main ..."
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Cited by 29 (5 self)
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Suffix arrays are a simple and powerful data structure for text processing that can be used for full text indexes, data compression, and many other applications in particular in bioinformatics. However, so far it has looked prohibitive to build suffix arrays for huge inputs that do not fit into main memory. This paper presents design, analysis, implementation, and experimental evaluation of several new and improved algorithms for suffix array construction. The algorithms are asymptotically optimal in the worst case or on the average. Our implementation can construct suffix arrays for inputs of up to 4GBytes in hours on a low cost machine. As a tool of possible independent interest we present a systematic way to design, analyze, and implement pipelined algorithms.
Practical Suffix Tree Construction
 In Proc. 13th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases
, 2004
"... Large string datasets are common in a number of emerging text and biological database applications. ..."
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Cited by 27 (2 self)
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Large string datasets are common in a number of emerging text and biological database applications.
A Theoretical and Experimental Study on the Construction of Suffix Arrays in External Memory
"... ..."
Selfindexed text compression using straightline programs
 In Proc. 34th MFCS
, 2009
"... Abstract. Straightline programs (SLPs) offer powerful text compression by representing a text T [1, u] in terms of a restricted contextfree grammar of n rules, so that T can be recovered in O(u) time. However, the problem of operating the grammar in compressed form has not been studied much. We pr ..."
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Cited by 8 (5 self)
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Abstract. Straightline programs (SLPs) offer powerful text compression by representing a text T [1, u] in terms of a restricted contextfree grammar of n rules, so that T can be recovered in O(u) time. However, the problem of operating the grammar in compressed form has not been studied much. We present a grammar representation whose size is of the same order of that of a plain SLP representation, and can answer other queries apart from expanding nonterminals. This can be of independent interest. We then extend it to achieve the first grammar representation able of extracting text substrings, and of searching the text for patterns, in time o(n). We also give byproducts on representing binary relations. 1 Introduction and Related Work Grammarbased compression is a wellknown technique since at least the seventies, and still a very active area of research. From the different variants of the idea, we focus on the case where a given text T [1, u] is replaced by a contextfree grammar (CFG) G that generates just the string T. Then one can store G instead
Obtaining provably good performance from suffix trees in secondary storage
 In Proc. 17th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM), LNCS 4009 (2006
, 2006
"... Abstract. Designing external memory data structures for string databases is of significant recent interest due to the proliferation of biological sequence data. The suffix tree is an important indexing structure that provides optimal algorithms for memory bound data. However, string Btrees provide t ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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Abstract. Designing external memory data structures for string databases is of significant recent interest due to the proliferation of biological sequence data. The suffix tree is an important indexing structure that provides optimal algorithms for memory bound data. However, string Btrees provide the best known asymptotic performance in external memory for substring search and update operations. Work on external memory variants of suffix trees has largely focused on constructing suffix trees in external memory or layout schemes for suffix trees that preserve link locality. In this paper, we present a new suffix tree layout scheme for secondary storage and present construction, substring search, insertion and deletion algorithms that are competitive with the string Btree. For a set of strings of total length n, a pattern p and disk blocks of size B, we provide a substring search algorithm that uses O(p/B +log B n) disk accesses. We present algorithms for insertion and deletion of all suffixes of a string of length m that take O(m log B (n + m)) and O(m log B n) disk accesses, respectively. Our results demonstrate that suffix trees can be directly used as efficient secondary storage data structures for string and sequence data. 1