Results 1  10
of
232
Markov chain monte carlo convergence diagnostics
 JASA
, 1996
"... A critical issue for users of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods in applications is how to determine when it is safe to stop sampling and use the samples to estimate characteristics of the distribution of interest. Research into methods of computing theoretical convergence bounds holds promise ..."
Abstract

Cited by 367 (6 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
A critical issue for users of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods in applications is how to determine when it is safe to stop sampling and use the samples to estimate characteristics of the distribution of interest. Research into methods of computing theoretical convergence bounds holds promise for the future but currently has yielded relatively little that is of practical use in applied work. Consequently, most MCMC users address the convergence problem by applying diagnostic tools to the output produced by running their samplers. After giving a brief overview of the area, we provide an expository review of thirteen convergence diagnostics, describing the theoretical basis and practical implementation of each. We then compare their performance in two simple models and conclude that all the methods can fail to detect the sorts of convergence failure they were designed to identify. We thus recommend a combination of strategies aimed at evaluating and accelerating MCMC sampler convergence, including applying diagnostic procedures to a small number of parallel chains, monitoring autocorrelations and crosscorrelations, and modifying parameterizations or sampling algorithms appropriately. We emphasize, however, that it is not possible to say with certainty that a finite sample from an MCMC algorithm is representative of an underlying stationary distribution. 1
General state space Markov chains and MCMC algorithm
 PROBABILITY SURVEYS
, 2004
"... This paper surveys various results about Markov chains on general (noncountable) state spaces. It begins with an introduction to Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, which provide the motivation and context for the theory which follows. Then, sufficient conditions for geometric and uniform e ..."
Abstract

Cited by 190 (38 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper surveys various results about Markov chains on general (noncountable) state spaces. It begins with an introduction to Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, which provide the motivation and context for the theory which follows. Then, sufficient conditions for geometric and uniform ergodicity are presented, along with quantitative bounds on the rate of convergence to stationarity. Many of these results are proved using direct coupling constructions based on minorisation and drift conditions. Necessary and sufficient conditions for Central Limit Theorems (CLTs) are also presented, in some cases proved via the Poisson Equation or direct regeneration constructions. Finally, optimal scaling and weak convergence results for MetropolisHastings algorithms are discussed. None of the results presented is new, though many of the proofs are. We also describe some Open Problems.
Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation Methods in Econometrics
, 1993
"... We present several Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods that have been widely used in recent years in econometrics and statistics. Among these is the Gibbs sampler, which has been of particular interest to econometricians. Although the paper summarizes some of the relevant theoretical literat ..."
Abstract

Cited by 149 (9 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We present several Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods that have been widely used in recent years in econometrics and statistics. Among these is the Gibbs sampler, which has been of particular interest to econometricians. Although the paper summarizes some of the relevant theoretical literature, its emphasis is on the presentation and explanation of applications to important models that are studied in econometrics. We include a discussion of some implementation issues, the use of the methods in connection with the EM algorithm, and how the methods can be helpful in model specification questions. Many of the applications of these methods are of particular interest to Bayesians, but we also point out ways in which frequentist statisticians may find the techniques useful.
Geometric Ergodicity and Hybrid Markov Chains
, 1997
"... Various notions of geometric ergodicity for Markov chains on general state spaces exist. In this paper, we review certain relations and implications among them. We then apply these results to a collection of chains commonly used in Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation algorithms, the socalled hybrid ..."
Abstract

Cited by 107 (29 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Various notions of geometric ergodicity for Markov chains on general state spaces exist. In this paper, we review certain relations and implications among them. We then apply these results to a collection of chains commonly used in Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation algorithms, the socalled hybrid chains. We prove that under certain conditions, a hybrid chain will "inherit" the geometric ergodicity of its constituent parts. 1 Introduction A question of increasing importance in the Markov chain Monte Carlo literature (Gelfand and Smith, 1990; Smith and Roberts, 1993) is the issue of geometric ergodicity of Markov chains (Tierney, 1994, Section 3.2; Meyn and Tweedie, 1993, Chapters 15 and 16; Roberts and Tweedie, 1996). However, there are a number of different notions of the phrase "geometrically ergodic", depending on perspective (total variation distance vs. in L 2 ; with reference to a particular V function; etc.). One goal of this paper is to review and clarify the relationship...
Dynamic Conditional Independence Models And Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods
 Journal of the American Statistical Association
, 1997
"... In dynamic statistical modeling situations, observations arise sequentially, causing the model to expand by progressive incorporation of new data items and new unknown parameters. For example, in clinical monitoring, new patientspecific parameters are introduced with each new patient. Markov chain ..."
Abstract

Cited by 89 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
In dynamic statistical modeling situations, observations arise sequentially, causing the model to expand by progressive incorporation of new data items and new unknown parameters. For example, in clinical monitoring, new patientspecific parameters are introduced with each new patient. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) might be used for posterior inference, but would need to be redone at each expansion stage. Thus such methods are often too slow for realtime implementation. By combining MCMC with importanceresampling, we show how realtime posterior updating can be effected. The proposed dynamic sampling algorithms utilize posterior samples from previous expansion stages, and exploit conditional independence between groups of parameters to allow samples of parameters no longer of interest to be discarded, such as when a patient dies or is discharged. We apply the methods to monitoring of heart transplant recipients during infection from cytomegalovirus. KEY WORDS : Bayesian Inference, ...
Estimating and sampling graphs with multidimensional random walks
, 2010
"... Estimating characteristics of large graphs via sampling is a vital part of the study of complex networks. Current sampling methods such as (independent) random vertex and random walks are useful but have drawbacks. Random vertex sampling may require too many resources (time, bandwidth, or money). Ra ..."
Abstract

Cited by 69 (12 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Estimating characteristics of large graphs via sampling is a vital part of the study of complex networks. Current sampling methods such as (independent) random vertex and random walks are useful but have drawbacks. Random vertex sampling may require too many resources (time, bandwidth, or money). Random walks, which normally require fewer resources per sample, can suffer from large estimation errors in the presence of disconnected or loosely connected graphs. In this work we propose a new mdimensional random walk that uses m dependent random walkers. We show that the proposed sampling method, which we call Frontier sampling, exhibits all of the nice sampling properties of a regular random walk. At the same time, our simulations over large real world graphs show that, in the presence of disconnected or loosely connected components, Frontier sampling exhibits lower estimation errors than regular random walks. We also show that Frontier sampling is more suitable than random vertex sampling to sample the tail of the degree distribution of the graph.
BUGS for a Bayesian Analysis of Stochastic Volatility Models
, 2000
"... This paper reviews the general Bayesian approach to parameter estimation in stochastic volatility models with posterior computations performed by Gibbs sampling. The main purpose is to illustrate the ease with which the Bayesian stochastic volatility model can now be studied routinely via BUGS (Baye ..."
Abstract

Cited by 58 (17 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper reviews the general Bayesian approach to parameter estimation in stochastic volatility models with posterior computations performed by Gibbs sampling. The main purpose is to illustrate the ease with which the Bayesian stochastic volatility model can now be studied routinely via BUGS (Bayesian Inference Using Gibbs Sampling), a recently developed, userfriendly, and freely available software package. It is an ideal software tool for the exploratory phase of model building as any modifications of a model including changes of priors and sampling error distributions are readily realized with only minor changes of the code. However, due to the single move Gibbs sampler, convergence can be slow. BUGS automates the calculation of the full conditional posterior distributions using a model representation by directed acyclic graphs. It contains an expert system for choosing an effective sampling method for each full conditional. Furthermore, software for convergence diagnostics and statistical summaries is available for the BUGS output
Methods for Approximating Integrals in Statistics with Special Emphasis on Bayesian Integration Problems
 Statistical Science
"... This paper is a survey of the major techniques and approaches available for the numerical approximation of integrals in statistics. We classify these into five broad categories; namely, asymptotic methods, importance sampling, adaptive importance sampling, multiple quadrature and Markov chain method ..."
Abstract

Cited by 49 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper is a survey of the major techniques and approaches available for the numerical approximation of integrals in statistics. We classify these into five broad categories; namely, asymptotic methods, importance sampling, adaptive importance sampling, multiple quadrature and Markov chain methods. Each method is discussed giving an outline of the basic supporting theory and particular features of the technique. Conclusions are drawn concerning the relative merits of the methods based on the discussion and their application to three examples. The following broad recommendations are made. Asymptotic methods should only be considered in contexts where the integrand has a dominant peak with approximate ellipsoidal symmetry. Importance sampling, and preferably adaptive importance sampling, based on a multivariate Student should be used instead of asymptotics methods in such a context. Multiple quadrature, and in particular subregion adaptive integration, are the algorithms of choice for...
Bayesian comparison of econometric models
, 1994
"... This paper integrates and extends some recent computational advances in Bayesian inference with the objective of more fully realizing the Bayesian promise of coherent inference and model comparison in economics. It combines Markov chain Monte Carlo and independence Monte Carlo with importance sampli ..."
Abstract

Cited by 49 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper integrates and extends some recent computational advances in Bayesian inference with the objective of more fully realizing the Bayesian promise of coherent inference and model comparison in economics. It combines Markov chain Monte Carlo and independence Monte Carlo with importance sampling to provide an efficient and generic method for updating posterior distributions. It exploits the multiplicative decomposition of marginalized likelihood into predictive factors, to compute posterior odds ratios efficiently and with minimal further investment in software. It argues for the use of predictive odds ratios in model comparison in economics. Finally, it suggests procedures for public reporting that will enable remote clients to conveniently modify priors, form posterior expectations of their own functions of interest, and update the posterior distribution with new observations. A series of examples explores the practicality and efficiency of these methods.