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38
Compositional Shape Analysis by means of BiAbduction
, 2009
"... This paper describes a compositional shape analysis, where each procedure is analyzed independently of its callers. The analysis uses an abstract domain based on a restricted fragment of separation logic, and assigns a collection of Hoare triples to each procedure; the triples provide an overapprox ..."
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Cited by 89 (16 self)
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This paper describes a compositional shape analysis, where each procedure is analyzed independently of its callers. The analysis uses an abstract domain based on a restricted fragment of separation logic, and assigns a collection of Hoare triples to each procedure; the triples provide an overapproximation of data structure usage. Compositionality brings its usual benefits – increased potential to scale, ability to deal with unknown calling contexts, graceful way to deal with imprecision – to shape analysis, for the first time. The analysis rests on a generalized form of abduction (inference of explanatory hypotheses) which we call biabduction. Biabduction displays abduction as a kind of inverse to the frame problem: it jointly infers antiframes (missing portions of state) and frames (portions of state not touched by an operation), and is the basis of a new interprocedural analysis algorithm. We have implemented
Local action and abstract separation logic
 IN PROC. 22ND ANNUAL IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON LOGIC IN COMPUTER SCIENCE (LICS’07
, 2007
"... Separation logic is an extension of Hoare’s logic which supports a local way of reasoning about programs that mutate memory. We present a study of the semantic structures lying behind the logic. The core idea is of a local action, a state transformer that mutates the state in a local way. We formula ..."
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Cited by 75 (10 self)
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Separation logic is an extension of Hoare’s logic which supports a local way of reasoning about programs that mutate memory. We present a study of the semantic structures lying behind the logic. The core idea is of a local action, a state transformer that mutates the state in a local way. We formulate local actions for a general class of models called separation algebras, abstracting from the RAM and other specific concrete models used in work on separation logic. Local actions provide a semantics for a generalized form of (sequential) separation logic. We also show that our conditions on local actions allow a general soundness proof for a separation logic for concurrency, interpreted over arbitrary separation algebras.
Polymorphism and separation in Hoare type theory
 In icfp
, 2006
"... In previous work we have proposed a Dependent Hoare Type Theory (HTT) as a framework for development and reasoning about higherorder functional programs with effects of state, aliasing and nontermination. The main feature of HTT is the type of Hoare triples {P}x:A{Q} specifying computations with pr ..."
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Cited by 64 (14 self)
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In previous work we have proposed a Dependent Hoare Type Theory (HTT) as a framework for development and reasoning about higherorder functional programs with effects of state, aliasing and nontermination. The main feature of HTT is the type of Hoare triples {P}x:A{Q} specifying computations with precondition P and postcondition Q, that return a result of type A. Here we extend HTT with predicative type polymorphism. Type quantification is possible in both types and assertions, and we can also quantify over Hoare triples. We show that as a consequence it becomes possible to reason about disjointness of heaps in the assertion logic of HTT. We use this expressiveness to interpret the Hoare triples in the “small footprint ” manner advocated by Separation Logic, whereby a precondition tightly describes the heap fragment required by the computation. We support stateful commands of allocation, lookup, strong update, deallocation, and pointer arithmetic. 1
Bi hyperdoctrines, higherorder separation logic, and abstraction
 IN ESOP’05, LNCS
, 2005
"... We present a precise correspondence between separation logic and a simple notion of predicate BI, extending the earlier correspondence given between part of separation logic and propositional BI. Moreover, we introduce the notion of a BI hyperdoctrine and show that it soundly models classical and in ..."
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Cited by 56 (21 self)
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We present a precise correspondence between separation logic and a simple notion of predicate BI, extending the earlier correspondence given between part of separation logic and propositional BI. Moreover, we introduce the notion of a BI hyperdoctrine and show that it soundly models classical and intuitionistic first and higherorder predicate BI, and use it to show that we may easily extend separation logic to higherorder. We also demonstrate that this extension is important for program proving, since it provides sound reasoning principles for data abstraction in the presence of
A Context Logic for Tree Update
 In Proceedings of Workshop on Logics for Resources, Processes and Programs (LRPP’04
, 2004
"... Spatial logics have been used to describe properties of treelike structures (Ambient Logic) and in a Hoare style to reason about dynamic updates of heaplike structures (Separation Logic). We integrate this work by analyzing dynamic updates to tree structures with pointers (such as XML with identif ..."
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Cited by 43 (11 self)
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Spatial logics have been used to describe properties of treelike structures (Ambient Logic) and in a Hoare style to reason about dynamic updates of heaplike structures (Separation Logic). We integrate this work by analyzing dynamic updates to tree structures with pointers (such as XML with identifiers and idrefs). Na ve adaptations of the previous logics are not expressive enough to capture such local updates. Instead we must explicitly reason about arbitrary tree contexts  not just horizontal composition and vertical branching  in order to capture updates throughout the tree. To illustrate the point, we introduce a small imperative programming language for updating our trees, small Hoarestyle axioms for the commands in the style of O'Hearn, Reynolds and Yang, and show how weakest preconditions are derivable from the small axioms with a generalized frame rule. We demonstrate the generality of our approach by showing that it collapses to Separation Logic for a heap model. 1.
Nested Hoare triples and frame rules for higherorder store
 In Proceedings of the 18th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic
, 2009
"... Abstract. Separation logic is a Hoarestyle logic for reasoning about programs with heapallocated mutable data structures. As a step toward extending separation logic to highlevel languages with MLstyle general (higherorder) storage, we investigate the compatibility of nested Hoare triples with ..."
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Cited by 28 (14 self)
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Abstract. Separation logic is a Hoarestyle logic for reasoning about programs with heapallocated mutable data structures. As a step toward extending separation logic to highlevel languages with MLstyle general (higherorder) storage, we investigate the compatibility of nested Hoare triples with several variations of higherorder frame rules. The interaction of nested triples and frame rules can be subtle, and the inclusion of certain frame rules is in fact unsound. A particular combination of rules can be shown consistent by means of a Kripke model where worlds live in a recursively defined ultrametric space. The resulting logic allows us to elegantly prove programs involving stored code. In particular, it leads to natural specifications and proofs of invariants required for dealing with recursion through the store. Keywords. Higherorder store, Hoare logic, separation logic, semantics. 1
A Fresh Look at Separation Algebras and Share Accounting ⋆
"... Abstract. Separation Algebras serve as models of Separation Logics; Share Accounting allows reasoning about concurrentread/exclusivewrite resources in Separation Logic. In designing a Concurrent Separation Logic and in mechanizing proofs of its soundness, we found previous axiomatizations of separ ..."
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Cited by 27 (8 self)
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Abstract. Separation Algebras serve as models of Separation Logics; Share Accounting allows reasoning about concurrentread/exclusivewrite resources in Separation Logic. In designing a Concurrent Separation Logic and in mechanizing proofs of its soundness, we found previous axiomatizations of separation algebras and previous systems of share accounting to be useful but imperfect. We adjust the axioms of separation algebras; we demonstrate an operator calculus for constructing new separation algebras; we present a more powerful system of share accounting with a new, simple model; and we provide a reusable Coq development. 1
Hybridizing a logical framework
 In International Workshop on Hybrid Logic 2006 (HyLo 2006), Electronic Notes in Computer Science
, 2006
"... The logical framework LF is a constructive type theory of dependent functions that can elegantly encode many other logical systems. Prior work has studied the benefits of extending it to the linear logical framework LLF, for the incorporation linear logic features into the type theory affords good r ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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The logical framework LF is a constructive type theory of dependent functions that can elegantly encode many other logical systems. Prior work has studied the benefits of extending it to the linear logical framework LLF, for the incorporation linear logic features into the type theory affords good representations of state change. We describe and argue for the usefulness of an extension of LF by features inspired by hybrid logic, which has several benefits. For one, it shows how linear logic features can be decomposed into primitive operations manipulating abstract resource labels. More importantly, it makes it possible to realize a metalogical framework capable of reasoning about stateful deductive systems encoded in the style familiar from prior work with LLF, taking advantage of familiar methodologies used for metatheoretic reasoning in LF.Acknowledgments From the very first computer science course I took at CMU, Frank Pfenning has been an exceptional teacher and mentor. For his patience, breadth of knowledge, and mathematical good taste I am extremely thankful. No less do I owe to the other two major contributors to my programming languages
Semantics for Structured Systems Modelling and Simulation
"... Simulation modelling is an important tool for exploring and reasoning about complex systems. Many supporting languages are available. Commonly occurring features of these languages are constructs capturing concepts such as process, resource, and location. We describe a mathematical framework that su ..."
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Cited by 16 (12 self)
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Simulation modelling is an important tool for exploring and reasoning about complex systems. Many supporting languages are available. Commonly occurring features of these languages are constructs capturing concepts such as process, resource, and location. We describe a mathematical framework that supports a modelling idiom based on these core concepts, and which adopts stochastic methods for representing the environments within which systems exist. We explain how this framework can be used to give a semantics to a simulation modelling language, Core Gnosis, that includes basic constructs for process, resource, and location. We include a brief discussion of a logic for reasoning about models that is compositional with respect to their structure. Our mathematical analysis of systems in terms of process, resource, location, and stochastic environment, together with a language that captures these concepts quite directly, yields an efficient and robust modelling framework within which natural mathematical reasoning about systems is captured.
A calculus and logic of resources and processes
 FAC, 18:495 – 517
, 2006
"... Recent advances in logics for reasoning about resources provide a new approach to compositional reasoning in interacting systems. We present a calculus of resources and processes, based on a development of Milner's synchronous calculus of communication systems, SCCS, that uses an explicit model of ..."
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Cited by 15 (7 self)
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Recent advances in logics for reasoning about resources provide a new approach to compositional reasoning in interacting systems. We present a calculus of resources and processes, based on a development of Milner's synchronous calculus of communication systems, SCCS, that uses an explicit model of resource. Our calculus models the coevolution of resources and processes with synchronization constrained by the availability of resources. We provide a logical characterization, analogous to HennessyMilner logic's characterization of bisimulation in CCS, of bisimulation between resource processes which is compositional in the concurrent and local structure of systems.