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28
Optimum aerodynamic design using the NavierStokes equations
 Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics
, 1998
"... The ultimate success of an aircraft design depends on the resolution of complex multidisciplinary tradeo s between factors such as aerodynamic eciency, structural weight, stability and control, and ..."
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Cited by 106 (45 self)
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The ultimate success of an aircraft design depends on the resolution of complex multidisciplinary tradeo s between factors such as aerodynamic eciency, structural weight, stability and control, and
Optimum aerodynamic design using CFD and control theory. AIAA paper 951729
 AIAA 12th Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference
, 1995
"... This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil and wing design. The theory is applied to a system defined by the partial differential equations of the flow, with control by the boundary as a free surface. The Frechet derivative of the cost func ..."
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Cited by 43 (24 self)
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This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil and wing design. The theory is applied to a system defined by the partial differential equations of the flow, with control by the boundary as a free surface. The Frechet derivative of the cost function is determined via the solution of an adjoint partial differential equation, and the boundary shape is then modified in a direction of descent. This process is repeated until an optimum solution is approached. Each design cycle requires the numerical solution of both the flow and the adjoint equations, leading to a computational cost roughly equal to the cost of two flow solutions. The cost is kept low by using multigrid techniques, which yield a sufficiently accurate solution in about 15 iterations. Satisfactory designs are usually obtained with 1020 design cycles. 1 The Design Problem as a Control Problem Aerodynamic design has traditionally been carried out on a cut and try basis, with the aerodynamic expertise of the designer guiding the selection of each shape modification. Although considerable gains in aerodynamic performance have been achieved by this approach, continued improvement will most probably be much more difficult to attain. The subtlety and complexity of fluid flow is such that it is unlikely that repeated trials in an interactive analysis and design procedure can lead to a truly optimum design. Automatic design techniques are therefore needed in order to fully realize the potential improvements in aerodynamic efficiency. The simplest approach to optimization is to define the geometry through a set of design parameters, which may, for example, be the weights ai applied to a set of shape functions bi(x) so that the shape is represented as Then a cost function I is selected which might, for example, be the drag coefficient or the lift to drag ratio, and I is regarded as a function of the parameters ai. The sensitivities 5 may now be estimated by making
A Perspective on Computational Algorithms for Aerodynamic Analysis and Design
 Progress in Aerospace Sciences
, 2001
"... This paper exam nes the use of computational fluid dynamics as a tool for aircraft design. It addresses the requirements for effective industrial use, and tradeoffs between modeling accuracy and computational costs. Essential elements of algorithm design are discussed in detail, together with a uni ..."
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Cited by 36 (19 self)
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This paper exam nes the use of computational fluid dynamics as a tool for aircraft design. It addresses the requirements for effective industrial use, and tradeoffs between modeling accuracy and computational costs. Essential elements of algorithm design are discussed in detail, together with a unified approach to the design of shock capturing schemes. Finally, the paper discusses the use of techniques drawn from control theory to determine optimal aerodynamic shapes. In the future multidisciplinary analysis and optimization should be combined to take account of the tradeoffs in the overall performance of the complete system
Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Techniques Based On Control Theory
 Control Theory, CIME (International Mathematical Summer
, 1998
"... This paper review the formulation and application of optimization techniques based on control theory for aerodynamic shape design in both inviscid and viscous compressible flow . The theory is applied to a system defined by the partial differential equations of the flow, with the boundary shape acti ..."
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Cited by 30 (25 self)
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This paper review the formulation and application of optimization techniques based on control theory for aerodynamic shape design in both inviscid and viscous compressible flow . The theory is applied to a system defined by the partial differential equations of the flow, with the boundary shape acting as the control. The Frechet derivative of the cost function is determined via the solution of an adjoint partial differential equation, and the boundary shape is then modified in a direction of descent. This process is repeated until an optimum solution is approached. Each design cycle requires the numerical solution of both the flow and the adjoint equations, leading to a computational cost roughly equal to the cost of two flow solutions. Representative results are presented for viscous optimization of transonic wingbody combinations and inviscid optimization of complex configurations.
Algorithm Developments for Discrete Adjoint Methods
, 2001
"... This paper presents a number of algorithm developments for adjoint methods using the `discrete' approach in which the discretisation of the nonlinear equations is linearised and the resulting matrix is then transposed ..."
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Cited by 23 (6 self)
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This paper presents a number of algorithm developments for adjoint methods using the `discrete' approach in which the discretisation of the nonlinear equations is linearised and the resulting matrix is then transposed
Control theory based airfoil design using the Euler equations
 AIAA paper 944272, 5th AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, Panama City Beach, FL
, 1994
"... This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In previous studies [6, 71 it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for twodimensional profiles in which the shape is determined by a co ..."
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Cited by 20 (5 self)
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This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In previous studies [6, 71 it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for twodimensional profiles in which the shape is determined by a conformal transformation from a unit circle, and the control is the mapping function. The goal of our present work is to develop a method which does not depend on conformal mapping, so that it can be extended to treat threedimensional problems. Therefore, we have developed a method which can address arbitrary geometric shapes through the use of a finite volume method to discretize the potential flow equation. Here the control law serves to provide computationally inexpensive gradient information to a standard numerical optimization method. Results are presented, where both target speed distributions and minimum drag are used as objective functions. Nomenclature A,, grid transformation coefficients b design variable B generic costate variable c speed of sound C bounding surface of flowfield domain on airfoil Cd coefficient of drag Ci coefficient of lift C, coefficient of pressure
Adjoint Error Correction for Integral Outputs
"... Introduction 1.1 Output functionals Why do engineers perform CFD calculations? In the case of a transport aircraft at cruise conditions, a calculation might be performed to investigate whether there is an adverse pressure gradient near the leading edge of the wing, causing boundary layer separatio ..."
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Cited by 14 (2 self)
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Introduction 1.1 Output functionals Why do engineers perform CFD calculations? In the case of a transport aircraft at cruise conditions, a calculation might be performed to investigate whether there is an adverse pressure gradient near the leading edge of the wing, causing boundary layer separation and premature transition. Alternatively, one might be concerned about wing/pylon/nacelle integration, in which case one might be looking to see if there are any shocks on the pylon, leading to unacceptable integration losses. In both of these examples, qualitative information is being obtained from the computed ow eld to understand and interpret the impact of the phenomena on the quantitative outputs of most concern to the aeronautical engineer, the lift and drag on the aircraft. The quality of the CFD calculation is judged, rst and foremost, by the accuracy of the lift and drag predictions. The details of the ow eld are much less important, and are used in a more qualitative manner t
Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using the Adjoint Method
 VKI Lecture Series on Aerodynamic Drag Prediction and Reduction, von Karman Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Rhode St Genese
, 2003
"... These Lecture Notes review the formulation and application of optimization techniques based on control theory for aerodynamic shape design in both inviscid and viscous compressible flow. The theory is applied to a system defined by the partial differential equations of the flow, with the boundary sh ..."
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Cited by 13 (9 self)
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These Lecture Notes review the formulation and application of optimization techniques based on control theory for aerodynamic shape design in both inviscid and viscous compressible flow. The theory is applied to a system defined by the partial differential equations of the flow, with the boundary shape acting as the control. The Frechet derivative of the cost function is determined via the solution of an adjoint partial differential equation, and the boundary shape is then modified in a direction of descent. This process is repeated until an optimum solution is approached. Each design cycle requires the numerical solution of both the flow and the adjoint equations, leading to a computational cost roughly equal to the cost of two flow solutions. Representative results are presented for viscous optimization of transonic wingbody combinations.
Adjoint Code Developments Using the Exact Discrete Approach
 AIAA Paper
, 2001
"... This paper presents a number of algorithm developments for adjoint methods using the `discrete' approach in which the discretisation of the nonlinear equations is linearised and the resulting matrix is then transposed. With a new iterative procedure for solving the adjoint equaitons, exact numeri ..."
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Cited by 10 (4 self)
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This paper presents a number of algorithm developments for adjoint methods using the `discrete' approach in which the discretisation of the nonlinear equations is linearised and the resulting matrix is then transposed. With a new iterative procedure for solving the adjoint equaitons, exact numerical equivalence is maintained between the linear and adjoint discretisations. The incorporation of strong boundary conditions within the discrete approach is discussed, as well as a new application of adjoint methods to linear unsteady ow in turbomachinery