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A Mixed Linear and NonLinear Logic: Proofs, Terms and Models (Preliminary Report)
, 1994
"... Intuitionistic linear logic regains the expressive power of intuitionistic logic through the ! (`of course') modality. Benton, Bierman, Hyland and de Paiva have given a term assignment system for ILL and an associated notion of categorical model in which the ! modality is modelled by a comonad ..."
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Cited by 119 (5 self)
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Intuitionistic linear logic regains the expressive power of intuitionistic logic through the ! (`of course') modality. Benton, Bierman, Hyland and de Paiva have given a term assignment system for ILL and an associated notion of categorical model in which the ! modality is modelled by a comonad satisfying certain extra conditions. Ordinary intuitionistic logic is then modelled in a cartesian closed category which arises as a full subcategory of the category of coalgebras for the comonad. This paper attempts to explain the connection between ILL and IL more directly and symmetrically by giving a logic, term calculus and categorical model for a system in which the linear and nonlinear worlds exist on an equal footing, with operations allowing one to pass in both directions. We start from the categorical model of ILL given by Benton, Bierman, Hyland and de Paiva and show that this is equivalent to having a symmetric monoidal adjunction between a symmetric monoidal closed category and a cartesian closed category. We then derive both a sequent calculus and a natural deduction presentation of the logic corresponding to the new notion of model.
The HDGMachine: A Highly Distributed GraphReducer for a Transputer Network
 The Computer Journal
, 1991
"... Distributed implementations of programming languages with implicit parallelism hold out the prospect that the parallel programs are immediately scalable. This paper presents some of the results of our part of Esprit 415, in which we considered the implementation of lazy functional programming langua ..."
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Cited by 33 (0 self)
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Distributed implementations of programming languages with implicit parallelism hold out the prospect that the parallel programs are immediately scalable. This paper presents some of the results of our part of Esprit 415, in which we considered the implementation of lazy functional programming languages on distributed architectures. A compiler and abstract machine were designed to achieve this goal. The abstract parallel machine was formally specified, using Miranda 1 . Each instruction of the abstract machine was then implemented as a macro in the Transputer Assembler. Although macro expansion of the code results in nonoptimal code generation, use of the Miranda specification makes it possible to validate the compiler before the Transputer code is generated. The hardware currently available consists of five T80025's, each board having 16M bytes of memory. Benchmark timings using this hardware are given. In spite of the straight forward codegeneration, the resulting system compar...
On the Interaction of Lazy Evaluation and Backtracking
 In Proc. of the 4th International Symposium on Programming Language Implementation and Logic Programming
, 1992
"... We investigate the interaction of lazy evaluation and backtracking in the framework of functional logic languages, whose operational semantics is based on lazy narrowing. Technically, it is no problem to realize a lazy narrowing strategy by adapting the wellknown techniques, which have been develop ..."
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We investigate the interaction of lazy evaluation and backtracking in the framework of functional logic languages, whose operational semantics is based on lazy narrowing. Technically, it is no problem to realize a lazy narrowing strategy by adapting the wellknown techniques, which have been developed for functional languages, to the more general evaluation mechanism of functional logic languages. But, unfortunately, it turns out, that the use of a lazy strategy has some severe disadvantages. In particular, it may lead to nontermination in combination with backtracking, where an innermost strategy will determine a solution. The use of demandedness information for function arguments allows us to define a mixture between an eager and a lazy evaluation strategy, which partially helps to cope with these problems. The runtimes obtained for various example programs with respect to the different strategies, substantiate that the mixed strategy is a reasonable compromise between an eager and a...
Linearity and Laziness
 In Proc. 5th ACM Conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer
, 1990
"... A criticism often levelled at functional languages is that they do not cope elegantly or efficiently with problems involving changes of state. In a recent paper [26], Wadler has proposed a new approach to these problems. His proposal involves the use of a type system based on the linear logic of Gir ..."
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A criticism often levelled at functional languages is that they do not cope elegantly or efficiently with problems involving changes of state. In a recent paper [26], Wadler has proposed a new approach to these problems. His proposal involves the use of a type system based on the linear logic of Girard [7]. This allows the programmer to specify the "natural" imperative operations without at the same time sacrificing the crucial property of referential transparency. In this paper we investigate the practicality of Wadler's approach, describing the design and implementation of a variant of Lazy ML [2]. A small example program shows how imperative operations can be used in a referentially transparent way, and at the same time it highlights some of the problems with the approach. Our implementation is based on a variant of the Gmachine [15, 1]. We give some benchmark figures to compare the performance of our machine with the original one. The results are disappointing: the cost of maintai...
A Usage Analysis With Bounded Usage Polymorphism and Subtyping
 In Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Implementation of Functional Languages, number AIB007 in Aachener Informatik Berichte
, 2000
"... Previously proposed usage analyses have proved not to scale up well for large programs. In this paper we present a powerful and accurate type based analysis designed to scale up for large programs. The key features of the type system are usage subtyping and bounded usage polymorphism. Bounded polymo ..."
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Previously proposed usage analyses have proved not to scale up well for large programs. In this paper we present a powerful and accurate type based analysis designed to scale up for large programs. The key features of the type system are usage subtyping and bounded usage polymorphism. Bounded polymorphism can lead to huge constraint sets and to express constraints compactly we introduce a new expressive form of constraints which allows constraints to be represented compactly through calls to constraint abstractions. 1 Introduction In the implementation of a lazy functional language sharing of evaluation is performed by updating. For example, the (unoptimised) evaluation of (x:x + x) (1 + 2) proceeds as follows. First, a closure for 1 + 2 is built in the heap and a reference to the closure is passed to the abstraction. Second, to evaluate x + x the value of x is required. Thus the closure is fetched from the heap and evaluated. Third, the closure is updated with the result so that w...
Implementing the Evaluation Transformer Model of Reduction on Parallel Machines
, 1991
"... The evaluation transformer model of reduction generalises lazy evaluation in two ways: it can start the evaluation of expressions before their first use, and it can evaluate expressions further than weak head normal form. Moreover, the amount of evaluation required of an argument to a function may d ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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The evaluation transformer model of reduction generalises lazy evaluation in two ways: it can start the evaluation of expressions before their first use, and it can evaluate expressions further than weak head normal form. Moreover, the amount of evaluation required of an argument to a function may depend on the amount of evaluation required of the function application. It is a suitable candidate model for implementing lazy functional languages on parallel machines. In this paper we explore the implementation of lazy functional languages on parallel machines, both shared and distributed memory architectures, using the evaluation transformer model of reduction. We will see that the same code can be produced for both styles of architecture, and the definition of the instruction set is virtually the same for each style. The essential difference is that a distributed memory architecture has one extra node type for nonlocal pointers, and instructions which involve the value of such nodes need their definitions extended to cover this new type of node. To make our presentation accessible, we base our description on a variant of the wellknon Gmachine, a machine for executing lazy functional programs.
A Treatment of HigherOrder Features in Logic Programming
, 2003
"... The logic programming paradigm provides the basis for a new intensional view of higherorder notions. This view is realized primarily by employing the terms of a typed lambda calculus as representational devices and by using a richer form of unification for probing their structures. These additions ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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The logic programming paradigm provides the basis for a new intensional view of higherorder notions. This view is realized primarily by employing the terms of a typed lambda calculus as representational devices and by using a richer form of unification for probing their structures. These additions have important metaprogramming applications but they also pose nontrivial implementation problems. One issue concerns the machine representation of lambda terms suitable to their intended use: an adequate encoding must facilitate comparison operations over terms in addition to supporting the usual reduction computation. Another aspect relates to the treatment of a unification operation that has a branching character and that sometimes calls for the delaying of the solution of unification problems. A final issue concerns the execution of goals whose structures becomes apparent only in the course of computation. These various problems are exposed in this paper and solutions to them are described. A satisfactory representation for lambda terms is developed by exploiting the nameless notation of de Bruijn as well as explicit encodings of substitutions. Special mechanisms are molded into the structure of traditional Prolog implementations to support branching in unification and carrying of unication problems over other computation steps; a premium is placed in this context on exploiting determinism and on emulating usual firstorder behaviour. An extended compilation model is presented that treats higherorder unification and also handles dynamically emergent goals. The ideas described here have been employed in the Teyjus implementation of the Prolog language, a fact that is used to obtain a preliminary assessment of their efficacy.
A Parallel Functional Language Compiler for MessagePassing Multicomputers
, 1998
"... The research presented in this thesis is about the design and implementation of Naira, a parallel, parallelising compiler for a rich, purely functional programming language. The source language of the compiler is a subset of Haskell 1.2. The front end of Naira is written entirely in the Haskell subs ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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The research presented in this thesis is about the design and implementation of Naira, a parallel, parallelising compiler for a rich, purely functional programming language. The source language of the compiler is a subset of Haskell 1.2. The front end of Naira is written entirely in the Haskell subset being compiled. Naira has been successfully parallelised and it is the largest successfully parallelised Haskell program having achieved good absolute speedups on a network of SUN workstations. Having the same basic structure as other production compilers of functional languages, Naira's parallelisation technology should carry forward to other functional language compilers. The back end of Naira is written in C and generates parallel code in the C language which is envisioned to be run on distributedmemory machines. The code generator is based on a novel compilation scheme specified using a restricted form of Milner's ßcalculus which achieves asynchronous communication. We present the f...
Implementing the Charity Abstract Machine
, 1995
"... This thesis describes a series of three abstract machines, with associated compilation procedures, for the Charity programming language. Each machine is a refinement of the previous, getting closer to the level of the physical machine. Th... ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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This thesis describes a series of three abstract machines, with associated compilation procedures, for the Charity programming language. Each machine is a refinement of the previous, getting closer to the level of the physical machine. Th...
Update Plans for Parallel Architectures
 Abstract Machine Models for Parallel and Distributed Computing
, 1996
"... This paper proposes Update Plans as a specification formalism for abstract machines for parallel architectures. Update Plans are a formal specification language for abstract and concrete machines. First results in using Update Plans to specify parallel architectures are illustrated, and some suggest ..."
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This paper proposes Update Plans as a specification formalism for abstract machines for parallel architectures. Update Plans are a formal specification language for abstract and concrete machines. First results in using Update Plans to specify parallel architectures are illustrated, and some suggestions for further research are made.