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27
Multiparty Communication Complexity
, 1989
"... A given Boolean function has its input distributed among many parties. The aim is to determine which parties to tMk to and what information to exchange with each of them in order to evaluate the function while minimizing the total communication. This paper shows that it is possible to obtain the Boo ..."
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Cited by 621 (20 self)
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A given Boolean function has its input distributed among many parties. The aim is to determine which parties to tMk to and what information to exchange with each of them in order to evaluate the function while minimizing the total communication. This paper shows that it is possible to obtain the Boolean answer deterministically with only a polynomial increase in communication with respect to the information lower bound given by the nondeterministic communication complexity of the function.
Special Purpose Parallel Computing
 Lectures on Parallel Computation
, 1993
"... A vast amount of work has been done in recent years on the design, analysis, implementation and verification of special purpose parallel computing systems. This paper presents a survey of various aspects of this work. A long, but by no means complete, bibliography is given. 1. Introduction Turing ..."
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Cited by 77 (5 self)
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A vast amount of work has been done in recent years on the design, analysis, implementation and verification of special purpose parallel computing systems. This paper presents a survey of various aspects of this work. A long, but by no means complete, bibliography is given. 1. Introduction Turing [365] demonstrated that, in principle, a single general purpose sequential machine could be designed which would be capable of efficiently performing any computation which could be performed by a special purpose sequential machine. The importance of this universality result for subsequent practical developments in computing cannot be overstated. It showed that, for a given computational problem, the additional efficiency advantages which could be gained by designing a special purpose sequential machine for that problem would not be great. Around 1944, von Neumann produced a proposal [66, 389] for a general purpose storedprogram sequential computer which captured the fundamental principles of...
On computation and communication with small bias
 In Proc. of the 22nd Conf. on Computational Complexity (CCC
, 2007
"... We present two results for computational models that allow error probabilities close to 1/2. First, most computational complexity classes have an analogous class in communication complexity. The class PP in fact has two, a version with weakly restricted bias called PP cc, and a version with unrestri ..."
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Cited by 36 (3 self)
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We present two results for computational models that allow error probabilities close to 1/2. First, most computational complexity classes have an analogous class in communication complexity. The class PP in fact has two, a version with weakly restricted bias called PP cc, and a version with unrestricted bias called UPP cc. Ever since their introduction by Babai, Frankl, and Simon in 1986, it has been open whether these classes are the same. We show that PP cc � UPP cc. Our proof combines a query complexity separation due to Beigel with a technique of Razborov that translates the acceptance probability of quantum protocols to polynomials. Second, we study how small the bias of minimaldegree polynomials that signrepresent Boolean functions needs to be. We show that the worstcase bias is at worst doubleexponentially small in the signdegree (which was very recently shown to be optimal by Podolski), while the averagecase bias can be made singleexponentially small in the signdegree (which we show to be close to optimal). 1
SuperLogarithmic Depth Lower Bounds Via The Direct Sum In Communication Complexity
 PROCEEDINGS OF 6 TH STRUCTURES IN COMPLEXITY THEORY
, 1991
"... Is it easier to solve two communication problems together than separately? This question is related to the complexity of the composition of boolean functions. Based on this relationship, an approach to separating NC¹ from P is outlined. Furthermore, it is shown that the approach provides a new p ..."
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Cited by 36 (10 self)
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Is it easier to solve two communication problems together than separately? This question is related to the complexity of the composition of boolean functions. Based on this relationship, an approach to separating NC¹ from P is outlined. Furthermore, it is shown that the approach provides a new proof of the separation of monotone NC¹ from monotone P.
The Communication Complexity of Threshold Gates
 In Proceedings of “Combinatorics, Paul Erdos is Eighty
, 1994
"... We prove upper bounds on the randomized communication complexity of evaluating a threshold gate (with arbitrary weights). For linear threshold gates this is done in the usual 2 party communication model, and for degreed threshold gates this is done in the multiparty model. We then use these upp ..."
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Cited by 29 (1 self)
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We prove upper bounds on the randomized communication complexity of evaluating a threshold gate (with arbitrary weights). For linear threshold gates this is done in the usual 2 party communication model, and for degreed threshold gates this is done in the multiparty model. We then use these upper bounds together with known lower bounds for communication complexity in order to give very easy proofs for lower bounds in various models of computation involving threshold gates. This generalizes several known bounds and answers several open problems.
Robust lower bounds for communication and stream computation
 in Proceedings of the 40th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (British
, 2008
"... We study the communication complexity of evaluating functions when the input data is randomly allocated (according to some known distribution) amongst two or more players, possibly with information overlap. This naturally extends previously studied variable partition models such as the bestcase and ..."
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Cited by 22 (6 self)
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We study the communication complexity of evaluating functions when the input data is randomly allocated (according to some known distribution) amongst two or more players, possibly with information overlap. This naturally extends previously studied variable partition models such as the bestcase and worstcase partition models [32, 29]. We aim to understand whether the hardness of a communication problem holds for almost every allocation of the input, as opposed to holding for perhaps just a few atypical partitions. A key application is to the heavily studied data stream model. There is a strong connection between our communication lower bounds and lower bounds in the data stream model that are “robust” to the ordering of the data. That is, we prove lower bounds for when the order of the items in the stream is chosen not adversarially but rather uniformly (or nearuniformly) from the set of all permuations. This randomorder data stream model has attracted recent interest, since lower bounds here give stronger evidence for the inherent hardness of streaming problems. Our results include the first randompartition communication lower bounds for problems including multiparty set disjointness and gapHammingdistance. Both are tight. We also extend and improve previous results [19, 7] for a form of pointer jumping that is relevant to the problem of selection (in particular, median finding). Collectively, these results yield lower bounds for a variety of problems in the randomorder data stream model, including estimating the number of distinct elements, approximating frequency moments, and quantile estimation.
Two Applications of Information Complexity
, 2003
"... We show the following new lower bounds in two concrete complexity models: (1) In the twoparty communication complexity model, we show that the tribes function on n inputs [6] has twosided error randomized complexity # n), while its nondeterminstic complexity and conondeterministic complexity are ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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We show the following new lower bounds in two concrete complexity models: (1) In the twoparty communication complexity model, we show that the tribes function on n inputs [6] has twosided error randomized complexity # n), while its nondeterminstic complexity and conondeterministic complexity are both #( # n). This separation between randomized and nondeterministic complexity is the best possible and it settles an open problem in Kushilevitz and Nisan [17], which was also posed by Beame and Lawry [5].
Oneway multiparty communication lower bound for pointer jumping with applications
, 2007
"... ..."
Learning Complexity vs Communication Complexity
, 2009
"... This paper has two main focal points. We first consider an important class of machine learning algorithms: large margin classifiers, such as Support Vector Machines. The notion of margin complexity quantifies the extent to which a given class of functions can be learned by large margin classifiers. ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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This paper has two main focal points. We first consider an important class of machine learning algorithms: large margin classifiers, such as Support Vector Machines. The notion of margin complexity quantifies the extent to which a given class of functions can be learned by large margin classifiers. We prove that up to a small multiplicative constant, margin complexity is equal to the inverse of discrepancy. This establishes a strong tie between seemingly very different notions from two distinct areas. In the same way that matrix rigidity is related to rank, we introduce the notion of rigidity of margin complexity. We prove that sign matrices with small margin complexity rigidity are very rare. This leads to the question of proving lower bounds on the rigidity of margin complexity. Quite surprisingly, this question turns out to be closely related to basic open problems in communication complexity, e.g., whether PSPACE can be separated from the polynomial hierarchy in communication complexity. Communication is a key ingredient in many types of learning. This explains the relations between the field of learning theory and that of communication complexity [6, 10, 16, 26]. The results of this paper constitute another link in this rich web of relations. These new results have already been applied toward the solution of several open problems in communication complexity [18, 20, 29].
Complexity Theoretical Results for Randomized Branching Programs
, 1998
"... This work is settled in the area of complexity theory for restricted variants of branching programs. Today, branching programs can be considered one of the standard nonuniform models of computation. One reason for their popularity is that they allow to describe computations in an intuitively straigh ..."
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Cited by 9 (8 self)
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This work is settled in the area of complexity theory for restricted variants of branching programs. Today, branching programs can be considered one of the standard nonuniform models of computation. One reason for their popularity is that they allow to describe computations in an intuitively straightforward way and promise to be easier to analyze than the traditional models. In complexity theory, we are mainly interested in upper and lower bounds on the size of branching programs. Although proving superpolynomial lower bounds on the size of general branching programs still remains a challenging open problem, there has been considerable success in the study of lower bound techniques for various restricted variants, most notably perhaps readonce branching programs and OBDDs (ordered binary decision diagrams). Surprisingly, OBDDs have also turned out to be extremely useful in practical applications as a data structure for Boolean functions. So far, research has concentrated on determinis...